Contributions to Physical and Medical Knowledge, Principally from the West of Englandcollected by Thomas Beddoes, M.D., 1799 [from William Francis Magie, ed., A Source Book in Physics (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1935)]
Matter is possessed of the power of attraction. By this power the particles of bodies tend to approximate, and to exist in a state of contiguity. The particles of all bodies with which we are acquainted, can be made to approach nearer to each other, by peculiar means, that is, the specific gravity of all bodies can be increased by diminishing their temperatures. Consequently (on the supposition of the impenetrability of matter) the particles of bodies are not in actual contact. There must then act on the corpuscles of bodies some other power, which prevents their actual contact; this may be called repulsion. The phaenomena of repulsion have been supposed, by the greater part of chemical philosophers, to depend on a peculiar elastic fluid; to which the names of latent heat, and caloric, have been given. The peculiar modes of existence of bodies, solidity, fluidity, and gazity, depend (according to the calorists) on the quantity of the fluid of heat entering into their composition; this substance insinuating itself between their corpuscles, separating them from each other, and preventing their actual contact, is, by them, supposed to be the cause of repulsion.
Other philosophers, dissatisfied with the evidences produced in favour of the existence of this fluid, and perceiving the generation of heat by friction and percussion, have supposed it to be motion.
Considering the discovery of the true cause of the repulsive power as highly important to philosophy, I have endeavoured to investigate this art of chemical science by experiments: from these experiments (of which I am now about to give a detail), I conclude that heat, or the power of repulsion, is not matter.
Without considering the effects of the repulsive power on bodies, or endeavouring to prove from these effects that it is motion, I shall attempt to demonstrate by experiments that it is not matter; and in doing this, I shall use the method called by mathematicians, reductio ad absurdum.
Let heat be considered as matter, and let it be granted that the temperature of bodies cannot be increased, unless their capacities are diminished from some cause, or heat added to them from some bodies in contact.
Now the temperatures of bodies are uniformly raised by friction and percussion. And since an increase of temperature is consequent on friction and percussion, it must consequently be generated in one of these modes. First, either from a diminution of the capacities of the acting bodies from some change induced in them by friction, a change producing in them an increase of temperature.
Secondly, or from heat communicated, from the decomposition of the oxygen gas in contact by one or both of the bodies, and then friction must effect some change in them (similar to an increase of temperature), enabling them to decompose oxygen gas, and they must be found after friction, partially or wholly oxydated.
Thirdly, or from a communication of caloric from the bodies in contact, produced by a change induced by friction in the acting bodies, enabling them to attract caloric from the surrounding bodies.
Now first let the increase of temperature produced by friction and percussion be supposed to arise from a diminution of the capacities of the acting bodies. In this case it is evident some change must be induced in the bodies by the action, which lessens their capacities and increases their temperatures.
I procured two parallelopipedons of ice, of the temperature of 29°, six inches long, two wide, and two-thirds of an inch thick: they were fastened by wires to two bars of iron. By a peculiar mechanism, their surfaces were placed in contact, and kept in a continued and violent friction for some minutes. They were almost entirely converted into water, which water was collected, and its temperature ascertained to be 35°, after remaining in an atmosphere of a lower temperature for some minutes. The fusion took place only at the plane of contact of the two pieces of ice, and not bodies were in friction but ice. From this experiment it is evident that ice by friction is converted into water, and according to the supposition its capacity is diminished; but it is a well-known fact, that the capacity of water for heat is much greater than that of ice; and ice must have an absolute quantity of heat added to it, before it can be converted into water. Friction consequently does not diminish the capacities of bodies for heat.
From this experiment it is likewise evident, that the increase of temperature consequent on friction cannot arise from the decomposition of the oxygen gas in contact, for ice has no attraction for oxygen. Since the increase of temperature consequent on friction cannot arise from the diminution of capacity, or oxydation of the acting bodies, the only remaining supposition is, that it arises from an absolute quantity of heat added to them, which heat must be attracted from the bodies in contact. Then friction must induce some change in bodies, enabling them to attract heat from the bodies in contact.
I procured a piece of clock-work so constructed as to be set to work in the exhausted receiver; one of the external wheels of this machine came in contact with a thin metallic plate. A considerable degree of sensible heat was produced by friction between the wheel and plate when the machine worked uninsulated from bodies capable of communicating heat. I next procured a small piece of ice; round the superior edge of this a small canal was made and filled with water. The machine was placed on the ice, but not in contact with the water. Thus disposed, the whole was placed under the receiver, (which had been previously filled with carbonic acid,) a quantity of potash (i.e. caustic vegetable alkali) being at the same time introduced.
The receiver was now exhausted. From the exhaustion, and from the attraction of the carbonic acid gas by the potash, a vacuum nearly perfect was, I believe, made.
The machine was now set to work. The wax rapidly melting, proved the increase of temperature.
Caloric then was collected by friction; which caloric, on the supposition, was communicated by the bodies in contact with the machine. In this experiment, ice was the only body in contact with the machine. Had this ice given out caloric, the water on the top of it must have been frozen. The water on the top of it was not frozen, consequently the ice did not give out caloric. The caloric could not come from the bodies in contact with the ice; for it must have passed through the ice to penetrate the machine, and an addition of caloric to the ice would have converted it into water.
Heat, when produced by friction, cannot be collected from the bodies in contact, and it was proved by the second experiment, that the increase of temperature consequent on friction cannot arise from diminution of capacity, or from oxydation. But if it be considered as matter, it must be produced in one of these modes. Since (as is demonstrated by these experiments) it is produced in neither of these modes, it cannot be considered as matter. It has then been experimentally demonstrated that caloric, or the matter of heat, does not exist.
Solids, by long and violent friction, become expanded, and if of a higher temperature than our bodies, affect the sensory organs with the peculiar sensation known by the common name of heat.
Since bodies become expanded by friction, it is evident that their corpuscles must move or separate from each other. Now a motion or vibration of the corpuscles of bodies must be necessarily generated by friction and percussion. Therefore we may reasonably conclude that this motion or vibration is heat, or the repulsive power.
Heat, then or that power which prevents the actual contact of the corpuscles of bodies, and which is the cause of our peculiar sensations of heat and cold, may be defined as a peculiar motion, probably a vibration, of the corpuscles of bodies, tending to separate them. It may with propriety be called the repulsive motion.