Chronology of Artificial Satellites and Space Probes

1957 Sputnik I is launched, first orbiting satellite.
1962 Mariner 2 is the first mission to Venus.
1965 Mariner 4 sends the first clear pictures of Mars.
1966 Luna 10 becomes the first spacecraft to orbit the Moon.
1967 Venera 4 sends the first data from below the clouds of Venus.
1967 The OSO-3 gamma-ray satellite discovers gamma-ray emission from the plane of the Milky Way.
1970 Launch of Uhuru, first dedicated X-ray satellite.
1972 Launch of the Copernicus ultraviolet satellite.
1974 Mariner 10 passes by and photographs Mercury.
1974 Launch of the Ariel V X-ray satellite.
1975 Venera 9 returns the first pictures of the surface of Venus.
1976 Viking I and Viking II land on Mars.
1976 The Vela and ANS X-ray satellites discover X-ray bursts.
1976 The OSO-8 X-ray satellite shows that X-ray bursts have blackbody spectra.
1977 Launch of the HEAO-1 X-ray satellite.
1978 Launch of the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite.
1978 Launch of the Einstein X-ray satellite (HEAO-2), first X-ray photographs of astronomical objects.
1979 Launch of the Hakucho X-ray satellite (ASTRO-A).
1979 Launch of the Ariel VI cosmic-ray and X-ray satellite.
1979 Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 send back images of Jupiter and its system.
1980 Voyager 1 sends back images of Saturn and its system.
1980 Launch of the Solar Maximum Mission satellite.
1981 Voyager 2 sends back images of Saturn and its system.
1983 Launch of the EXOSAT X-ray satellite.
1983 Launch of the Tenma X-ray satellite (ASTRO-B).
1983 Launch of the IRAS satellite.
1986 Voyager 2 sends back images of Uranus and its system.
1987 Launch of the Ginga X-ray satellite (ASTRO-C).
1989 Voyager 2 sends back images of Neptune and its system.
1989 Launch of the Granat gamma-ray and X-ray satellite.
1989 Launch of the Hipparcos satellite.
1989 Launch of the COBE satellite.
1990 Launch of the Hubble Space Telescope.
1990 Launch of the ROSAT X-ray satellite, first imaging X-ray sky survey.
1990 First observations made with Astro-1 (BBXRT, HUT, UIT, WUPPE).
1991 Launch of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory satellite.
1993 Launch of the Asca X-ray satellite (ASTRO-D).