Chronology of Medicine and Medical Technology

-420 Hippocrates begins the scientific study of medicine by maintaining that diseases have natural causes.
-280 Herophilus studies the nervous system and distinguishes between sensory nerves and motor nerves.
-250 Erasistratus studies the brain and distinguishes between the cerebrum and cerebellum.
50 Pedanius Dioscorides describes the medical applications of plants in De Materia Medica.
180 Galen studies the connection between paralysis and severance of the spinal cord.
1242 Ibn an-Nafi suggests that the right and left ventricles of the heart are separate and describes the lesser circulation of blood.
1249 Roger Bacon writes about convex lens eyeglasses for treating farsightedness.
1403 Venice implements a quarantine against the Black Death.
1451 Nicholas of Cusa invents concave lens spectacles to treat nearsightedness.
1543 Andreas Vesalius publishes De Fabrica Corporis Humani which corrects Greek medical errors and revolutionizes medicine.
1546 Gerolamo Fracastoro proposes that epidemic diseases are caused by transferable seedlike entities.
1553 Miguel Serveto describes the lesser circulation of blood through the lungs.
1559 Realdo Colombo describes the lesser circulation of blood through the lungs in detail.
1603 Girolamo Fabrici studies leg veins and notices that they have valves which only allow blood to flow toward the heart.
1628 William Harvey explains the vein-artery system and structure of the heart in De Motu Cordis et Sanguinis.
1701 Giacomo Pylarini gives the first smallpox inoculations.
1747 James Lind discovers that citrus fruits prevent scurvy.
1763 Claudius Aymand performs the first successful appendectomy.
1796 Edward Jenner develops a smallpox vaccination method.
1800 Humphry Davy announces the anaesthetic properties of nitrous oxide.
1816 Rene Laennec invents the stethoscope.
1842 Crawford Long performs the first surgical operation using anasthesia.
1847 Ignaz Semmelweis studies and prevents the transmission of puerperal fever.
1870 Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch establish the germ theory of disease.
1881 Louis Pasteur develops an anthrax vaccine.
1882 Louis Pasteur develops a rabies vaccine.
1890 Emil von Behring discovers antitoxins and uses them to develop tetanus and diptheria vaccines.
1906 Frederick Hopkins suggests the existence of vitamins and suggests that a lack of vitamins causes scurvy and rickets.
1907 Paul Ehrlich develops a chemotheraputic cure for sleeping sickness.
1921 Edward Mellanby discovers vitamin D and shows that its absence causes rickets.
1928 Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin.
1932 Gerhard Domagk develops a chemotheraputic cure for streptococcus.
1952 Jonas Salk develops the first polio vaccine.