Chronology of Geology

1620 Francis Bacon notices the jigsaw fit of the opposite shores of the Atlantic Ocean.
1701 Edmund Halley suggests using the salinity and evaporation of the Mediterranean to determine the age of the Earth.
1837 Louis Agassiz begins his glaciation studies which eventually demonstrate that the Earth has had at least one Ice Age.
1862 Lord Kelvin attempts to find the age of the Earth by examining its cooling time and estimates that the Earth is between 20-400 million years old.
1903 George Darwin and John Joly claim that radioactivity is partially responsible for the Earth's heat.
1907 Bertram Boltwood proposes that the amount of lead in uranium and thorium ores might be used to determine the Earth's age and crudely dates some rocks to have ages between 410-2200 million years.
1912 Alfred Wegener proposes that all the continents once formed a single landmass called Pangaea that broke apart via continental drift.
1913 Albert Michelson measures tides in the solid body of the Earth.
1935 Charles Richter invents a logarithmic scale to measure the intensity of earthquakes.
1953 Maurice Ewing and Bruce Heezen discover the Great Global Rift running along the Mid-Oceanic Ridge.
1960 Harry Hess proposes that new sea floor might be created at mid-ocean rifts and destroyed at deep sea trenches.
1963 F.J. Vine and D.H. Matthews explain the stripes of magnetized rocks with alternating magnetic polarities running parallel to mid-ocean ridges as due to sea floor spreading and the periodic geomagnetic field reversals.