Transition Metals


The (loosely defined) transition metals are the 40 chemical elements 21 to 30, 39 to 48, 71 to 80, and 103 to 112.  The name transition comes from their position in the periodic table of elements.  In each of the four periods in which they occur, these elements represent the successive addition of electrons to the d atomic orbitals of the atoms.  In this way, the transition metals represent the transition between group 2 elements and group 13 elements.

Transition Metals
Group 3
(IIIB)
4
(IVB)
5
(VB)
6
(VIB)
7
(VIIB)
8
(VIIIB)
9
(VIIIB)
10 (VIIIB) 11
(IB)
12
(IIB)
Period 4 21
Sc
44.95
22
Ti
47.86
23
V
50.94
24
Cr
51.99
25
Mn
54.93
26
Fe
55.84
27
Co
58.93
28
Ni
58.69
29
Cu
63.54
30
Zn
65.39
Period 5 39
Y
88.90
40
Zr
91.22
41
Nb
92.90
42
Mo
95.94
43
Tc
98.00
44
Ru
101.0
45
Rh
102.9
46
Pd
106.4
47
Ag
107.8
48
Cd
112.4
Period 6 57
La
138.9
72
Hf
178.4
73
Ta
180.9
74
W
183.8
75
Re
186.2
76
Os
190.2
77
Ir
192.2
78
Pt
195.0
79
Au
196.9
80
Hg
200.5
Period 7 89
Ac
227.0
104
Rf
261.0
105
Db
262.0
106
Sg
266.0
107
Bh
264.0
108
Hs
269.0
109
Mt
268.0
110
Uun
269.0
111
Uuu
272.0
112
Uub
277.0

Technically, Zn, Cd, Hg, and Uub are not actually Transition Metals as they are unable to form partially complete d-orbital subshells