| August 03, 1805
Set out this morning at sunrise and continued our rout through the valley on the lard.
side of the river. at eleven A.M. Drewyer killed a doe and we halted and took
breakfast. the mountains continue high on either side of the valley, and are but
skantily supplyed with timber; small pine [Limber Pine.] appears to be
the prevalent growth. there is no timber in the valley except a small quantity of
the narrow leafed cottonwood on the verge of the river. the underwood consists of
the narrowleafed or small willow, honeysuckle rosebushes, courant, goosbury [The
Willow is Sandbar, or Coyote Willow, Salix exigua; Honeysuckle is probably
Wolfberry, Western Snowberry, Symphoricarpos occidentalis; Rosebushes are Western
Wild Rose, Rosa woodsii; and the "goosbury" is probably Swamp Currant, Ribes
lacustre.] and service bury bushes allso a small quantity of a species of
dwarf burch [The Scrub Birch, Betula glandulosa.] the leaf of
which, oval, deep green, finely indented and very small. we encamped this evening
after sunset having traveled by estimate 23 miles. [Above the mouth of the big
Hole River as it was in 1805. The rivers have changed course considerably in this region
since that time.] from the width and appearance of the valley at this place
I concieved that the river forked not far above me and therefore resolved the next morning
to examine the adjacent country more minutely.
August 03, 1805
Set out early this morning, or before sunrise; still continued our march through the
level valley on the lard. side of the river. the valley much as yesterday only
rether wider; I think it 12 Miles wide, tho' the plains near the mountains rise higher and
are more broken with some scattering pine near the mountain. in the leaveler parts
of the plain and river bottoms which are very extensive there is no timber except a scant
proportion of cottonwood near the river. the under wood consists of the narow leafed
or small willow, the small honeysuckle, rosebushes, currant, serviceberry, and goosbery
bushes; also a small species of berch in but small quantities <of a species> the
leaf which is oval finely, indented, small and of a deep green colour. the
stem is simple ascending and branching, and seldom rises higher than 10 or 12 feet.
the Mountains continue high on either side of the valley, and are but scantily supplyed
with timber; small pine apears to be the prevalent growth; it is of the pich kind, with a
short leaf. at 11 A.M. Drewyer killed a doe and we halted about 2 hours and
breakfasted, and then continued our rout untillnight without halting, when we arrived at
the river in a level bottom which appeared to spread to greater extent than usual.
from the appearance of the timber I supposed that the river forked above us and resolved
to examine this part of the river minutely tomorrow. this evening we passed through
a high plain for about 8 miles covered with prickley pears and bearded grass, tho' we
found this even better walking than the wide bottoms of the river, which we passed in the
evening; these altho' apparently level, from some cause which I know not, were formed into
meriads of deep holes as if rooted up by hogs these the grass covered so thick
that it was impossible to walk without the risk of falling down at every step. some
parts of these bottoms also possess excellent terf or peat, I beleive of many feet
deep. the mineral salts also frequently mentioned on the Missouri we saw this
evening in the uneven bottoms. [The mineral salts are those of sodium sulphate (Na2SO4),
sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), and magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) similar
to those noticed earlier downstream of the Great Falls of the Missouri. These salts have
formed here because they are derived from salt-rich Cretaceous formations through which
the Ruby and Big Hole rivers pass.] we saw many deer, Antelopes ducks,
gees, some beaver and great appearance of their work. also a small bird and the Curlooe as
usual. [Probably the Long-Billed Curlew, Numenius americanus.]
we encamped on the river bank on Lard. side having traveled by estimate 23 Miles. The fish
of this part of the river are trout and a species of scale fish of a while [white]
colour and a remarkable small long mouth which one of our men inform us are the same with
the species called in Eastern states bottlenose. [The Northern Sucker, Catostomus
catostomus. See Lewis August 19, 1805.] the snowey region of the mountains
and for some distance below has no timber or herbage of any kind; the timber is confined
to the lower and middle regions. Capt. Clark set out this morning as usual. he
walked on shore a small distance this morning and killed a deer. in the course of
his walk he saw a track which he supposed to be that of an Indian from the circumstances
of the large toes turning inward. he pursued the track and found that the person had
ascended a point of a hill from which his camp of the last evening was visible; this
circumstance also confirmed the beeif of it's being an Indian who hade thus descovered
them and ran off. they found the river as usual much crouded with islands, the currant
more rapid & much more shallow than usual. in many places they were obliged to
double man the canoes and drag them over the stone and gravel. this
morning they passed a small creek on Stard. at the entrance of which Reubin Fields
killed a large Panther. we called the creek after that animal Panther Creek. [Later
Big Pipestone Creek. The animal was a Mountain Lion, Felis concolor.]
they also passed a handsome little stream on Lard. which is form of several large
springs which rise in the bottoms and along the base of the mountains with some little
rivulets from the melting snows. the beave have formed many large dams on this
stream. they saw some deer Antelopes and the common birds of the country. in the
evening they passed a very bad rappid where the bed of the river is formed entrely of
solid rock and encamped on an island just above. [A few miles below present
Waterloo, MT.] the Panther which Fields killed measured seven and 1/2 feet
from the nose to the extremity of the tail. it is precisly the same animal common to
the western part of our country. the men wer compelled to be a great proportion of
their time in the water today; they have had a severe days labour and are much
Courses and distances as traveled by Capt. C and party August 3rd
||in a Lard. bend.
|| 1 1/4
||to a Stard. bend.
|S. 45o W.
||to the entrance of a small creek in a Stard. bend this stream heads
in the mountains at a little distance. we called it Panther Creek.
|S. 20o W.
||in the Stard. bend.
|S. 80o E.
|| 1 1/4
||to the lower point of an Island.
||to a point of the Island on it's stard. side
|South 30o E.
||to a bayou in the Island
|| 1 1/2
||to the upper point of the island having passed two point and a Clift on
Stard. and a point on Lard.
|S. 10o W.
||On a direct line to the entrance of a small creek on Lard. it being the
dranes of a snowey mountain in view. river passing under this mountain leaving the bottoms
to the Stard. and has several short bends in this course.
|S. 25o W.
||to a small run in a Lard. Bend
|S. 60o W.
||to a low stolley bluff in a Stard. bend, opposite an island having passed
|S. 20o W.
||to the lower point of an Island Lard. passing one other, and a narrow
rocky channel under a bluf. encamped on this island for the evening.
August 03, 1805
a fine morning wind from the N E I walked on Shore & killed a Deer in
my walk I saw a fresh track which I took to be an Indian from the Shape of the foot as the
toes turned in, I think it probable that this Indian Spied our fires and Came to a
Situation to view us from the top of a Small knob on the Lard Side. the river more
rpid and Sholey than yesterday one R. F. man killed a large Panthor on the Shore
we are oblige to haul over the Canoes Sholey in maney places where the Islands are
noumerous and bottom Sholey, in the evening the river more rapid and Sholey we encamped on
an Island avove a part of the river whic passed thro a rockey bed enclosed on both sides
with thick willow current & red buries &c &c [ The "red
buries" are Buffaloberry, Shepherdia argentea.] passed a
bold Stream which heads in the mountains to our right and the drean of the minting Snow in
the Montn. on that side ar in View-- at 4 oClock passed a bold Stream which falls
from a mountn in three Channels to our left, the Greater portion of the Snow on this
mountain is melted, but little remaining near us Some Deer Elk & antelopes &
Bear in the bottoms. but fiew trees and they Small the Mountains on our left
Contain pine those on our right but verry partially Supplied and what pine & cedar it
has is on the Lower region, no wood being near the Snow. great numbers of Beaver
Otter &c. Some fish trout & bottle nose. Birds as usial. Geese young Ducks &
August 03, 1805
a clear morning. we Set out as usal and proceeded on. Capt. Clark walked on Shore
a Short time and killed a Deer. The River verry crooked and filled with Islands. we
proceeded on. Saw 2 deer on the edge of the River. one of the hunters R. Fields went
after them and killed a panther on an Island. it was 7 1/2 feet in length. it
differs from those in the States. it is of a redish brown, and the first we have
killed. passed verry rapid water we have to double man the canoes and drag them over
the Sholes and rapid places. we have to be in the water half of our time.
passed level praries on each Side. the bottoms has been burned over about 6 months
past by the natives, as appears. passed a large Spring on the Lard. Side at a low
bottom of willows and high grass. The beaver has made a dam at the mouth on the bank
of the River which causes a pond back Some distance and they have lodges all through the
pond. the water falls over the dam in the River abt. 4 feet. I drunk of the water
found it verry cold. it appears that there is 3 or 4 Springs running from under the
mountains a Short distance to the South of us Some Spots of Snow on it. About
one oC. we passed over a bad rapid and halted at a bottom covered with timber,
to dine the day pleasant and warm. proceeded on passed a large Spring
run which is made by the Snow on the Mountains and runs from the foot of the Mo. through a
Smooth plain. the River gitting more rapid the rapids longer passed
beaver ponds, bottom prarie & bottoms covred with timber &C. Came 17 1/2 miles
this day, and Camped on the Lard. Side at a bottom of cotton timber. the currents
verry think a rabit berrys &C.
August 03, 1805
A fine cool morning. We left a note for Capt. Clarke, continued our route along the
valley; and passed several fine springs that issue from the mountains. Currents and
service berries are in abundance along this valley, and we regaled ourselves with some of
the best I had ever seen. We went about 22 miles and encamped. [Above the mouth of
the Big Hole river, the expedition's Wisdom River.] The night was
August 03, 1805
a clear morning. we Set out as usal and proceeded on. Capt.
Clark walked on shore a Short time and killed a Deer. the River verry crooked and
filled with Islands. proceeded on. Saw 2 deer little ahead, one of
the hunters went after them and killed a panther [Reuben Fields] on an
Island. it differs Some from those in the States it was 7 1/2 feet long, &
of a redish coulour the turshes [tusks] long the tallants [talons]
large but not verry long.. passed verry rapid water So that we had to double
man the canoes and drag them over the Sholes & rapids. passed a large
prarie on S. Side. high grass & bushes along the River. the
bottoms has been burned over by the natives I expect last fall. passed a verry
large Spring on L. S. which makes from under the mountains. the beaver has
damed up the mouth & built lodges all through the pond it forms. it falls
over the beaver dam in to the River verry Steep, about 4 feet.-- passed over a
bad rapid and halted about one to dine at a bottom of timber on the S. Side.
they day pleasant & warm. proceeded on passed Several Springs
one large one on L. S. plains and bottoms, Some of which is covred with cotton & birch
[Possibly Scrub Birch, Betula glandulosa, Lewis refers to this plant as
dwarf birch.] timber the River Still getting more rapid and the
rapids longer than below. Came 11 1/2 miles this day and Camped on L. Side
August 03, 1805
a Clear morning, & we set out on our Voyage early, Captain Clark walked on Shore a
short time, and killed a Deer.-- We halted our Canoes, and took the Deer on board,
and then proceeded on, We find the River very crooked, and filled with Islands. We
continued on, and saw 2 Deer a small distance a head of us.-- One of our hunters
went out after them, this hunter killed a Panther on a small Island, a small distance from
us. it differed but very little from those seen in the United States.
It measured 7 1/2 feet long, and was of a reddish colout, its tushes was very
long, the Talons thick but not long, We passed many places in the River, that the water
ran so rapid, that we were forced to double man the Tow ropes to drag the Canoes over the
Shoals & rapids. We passed a large Priari lying on the South side of the River,
high Grass & bushes, growing along the River. We also passed a very large spring,
which lies on the South side of the River, ande comes from under the mountains.--
The beaver had dammed up the Mouth of this large spring, and had built their
houses all through the pond it had formed, it falls over the beaver dam into the River,
about 4 feet, We passed over a bad rapid, and halted about One o'Clock P. M. to dine at a
bottom of timber'd land, on the south side of the River-- The day was warm but
pleasant, we proceeded on and passed several springs, onr of which was very large, lying
on the south side of the river, & some plains, some of which was covered with Cotton
wood Trees & birch timber.-- The River has this day run more rapid, & the
Rapids much longer, than any we had yet seen, which fataigued our Men exceedingly.--
We came 11 1/2 Miles this day & encamped on the South side of the River, in a
place of Wood land.--