May 31, 1806
Goodrich and Willard visited the indian Villages this morning and returned in the evening. Willard brought with him the dressed skin of a bear which he had purchased for Capt. C. this skin was an uniform pale redish brown colour, the indians informed us that it was not the Hoh-host or white bear, that it was the Yack-kah. [Gary E. Moulton: Hoh-host is the Nez Perce term for the Grizzly Bear, while Yack-kah, "brown bear," is the designation for the Black Bear. The "cinnamon bear" was at one time, in harmony with Lewis's opinion, designated a separate species, Ursus cinnamomeus. More recently it has been considered either a color phase or subspecies of the Black Bear, U. americanus.] this distinction of the indians induced us to make further enquiry relative to their opinons of the several speceis of bear in this country. we produced the several skins of the bear which we had killed at this place and one very nearly white which I had purchased. The white, the deep and plale red grizzle, the dark bron grizzle, and all those which had the extremities of the hair of a white or frosty colour without regard to the colour of the ground of the poil, they designated Hoh-host and assured us that they wee the same with the white bear, that they ascosiated together, were very vicisious, never climbed the trees and had much longer nails than the others. the black skins, those which were black with a number of intire white hairs intermixed, the black with a white breast, the uniform bey, brown and light redish brown, they designated the Yack-kah;--said that they climbed the trees, had short nails and were not vicious, that they could pursue them and kill them with safety, they also affirmed that they were much smaller than the white bear. I am disposed to adopt the Indian distinction with rispect to these bear and consider them two distinct speceis. the white and the grizzly of this neighbourhood are the same of those found on the upper portion of the Missouri where the other speceis are not, and that the uniform redish brown black &c of this neighbourhood are a speceis distinct from our black bear and from the black bear of the Pacific coast which I believe to be the same with those of the Atlantic coast, and that the common black bear do not exist here. I had previously observed that the claws of some of the bear which we had killed here had much shorter tallons than the variagated or white bear usually have but supposed that they had woarn them out by scratching up roots, and these were those which the indians called Yak-kah. on enquiry I found also that a cub of an uniform redish brown colour, pup to a female black bear intermixed with entire white hairs had climbed a tree. I think this a distinct speceis from the common black bear, because we never find the latter of any other colour than an uniform black, and also that the poil of this bear is much finer thicker and longer with a greater proportion of fur mixed with the hair, in other ispects they are much the same.-- This evening Joseph and R. Feilds returned with the three deer which they had killed. The Indians brought us another of our origional Stock of horses; there are only two absent now of those horses, and these the indians inform us that our shoshone guide [Toby; See August 20, 1905, and May 12, 1806.] rode back when he returned. we have sixty five horses at this time, most of them in excellent order and fine strong active horses.--
The Indians pursued a mule deer to the river opposite to our camp this evening; the deer swam over and one of our hunters killed it. there being a large party of indians assembled on this occasion on the opposite side, Hohast-ill-pilp desired them to raise our canoe which was sunk on that side of the river yesterday; they made the attempt but were unable to effect it.--
May 31, 1806
Goodrich and Willard visited the indian Village this morning and returned in the evening Willard brought with him the dressed Skin of a bear which he had purchased for me. this Skin was of a uniform pale redish brown colur, the indians inform us that it was not the Hoh-host or white bear, that it was the Yack-kah this distinction of the indians induced us to make further enquiry relitive to their oppinions of the defferent Species of bear in this country. We produced the Several Skins of the bear which our hunters had killed at this place and one very nearly white which Capt Lewis had purchased. the White, the deep and pale red grizzle, the dark brown grizzle, and all those that had the extremities of the hair of a White or frosty Colour without reguard to the Colour of the ground of the poil, they disignated Hoh-host and assured us that they were the Same with the White bear, that they associated together, were very vicisious, never climb the trees, and had much longer nails than the others. The black skins, those which were black with a number of entire white hairs intermixed, the black with a White breast, the uniform bey, brown and light redish brown, they disignated the Yack-kah--; Said that they Climb the trees had Short nails and were not viscisious, that they could prosue them and kill them in Safty, they also affirmed that they were much Smaller than the white bear. I am disposed to adopt the indians distinction with respect to these bear and consider them two distinct Species. The White and the Grizzly of this neighbourhood are the Same as those found on the upper part of the Missouri where the other Species are not, and that the uniform redish brown black &c. of this neighbourhood are a Species distinct from both Species of our black bear and from the black bear of the Pacific Coast which I believe to be the Same with those of the Atlantic Coast, and that the Common black bear do not exist here. I had previously observed that the claws of Some of the bear which we had killed here had much Shorter tallons than the varigated or White bear usially have but Supposed that they had worn them out by scratching out roots, and these were those which the indians call Yahkah. on enquiry I found also that a Cub of a uniform redish brown Colour pup to a female black bear intermixed with entire white hairs, had climbed a tree. I think this a distinct Species from the common black bear becaus we never find the latter of any other Colour than a uniform black, and also that the poil of this bear is much finer thicker and longer with a greater proportion of fur mixed with the hair, in other respects they are much the same--.
This evening Joseph and Reuben Fields returned with the three deer they had killed. The indians brought us another of our Original Stock of Horses; there are only two Absent now of these horses, and these the indians inform us that our Sho-Sho-ne guide rode back when he returned. we have Sixty five horses at this time, most of them in excellent order and fine Strong active horses--.
The Indians pursued a Mule deer to the river opposit to our Camp this evening; the deer Swam over and one of our hunters killed it. there being a large party of indians assembled on this Occasion on the opposit Side with Tin-nach-e-moo-tolt they attempted to rais our Canoe which was Sunk on that Side of the river yesterday; they made the attempt but were unable to effect it--.
1st had a pretty hard shower last night. cold morning-- having left the river we could no longer observe it's state; it is now declining tho' it has not been as high this season by five feet as it appears to have been the last spring. the indians inform us that it will rise higher in this month, which I presume is caused by the snows of the mountains. 2nd cold this morning, some dew 3rd rained last night and snowed & hailed this morning. the air cold and wind hard. the mountains to our right seem to have experienced an increase of their snow last evening. 4th heavy white frost this morning ice 1/6 of an inch thick on standing water. 5th hard frost this morning ice 1/8 of an inch thick on vessels of water [Clark has "thick on Standing water."] 7th the Kooskooske is rising water cold and clear. 9th Musquetors troublesom 10th Snow was 8 inches deep this morning. it began to rain and hail about sunseting this evening which was shortly after succeeded by snow. it continued to fall without intermission untill 7 A. M. and lay 8 inches deep on the plain where we were. the air was very keen. a suddon transition this. yesterday the face of the country had every appearance of summer. after nine A. M. the sun shown but was frequently obscured by clouds which gave us light showers of snow. in the after part of the day the snow melted considerably but there was too great a portion to be disipated by the influence of one day's sun. 11th the Crimson haw is not more forward now at this place than it was when we lay at rock fort camp in April.-- [Clark adds "eate a Horse."] 12th the natives inform us that the salmon have arrived at the entrance of the Kooskooske in great numbers and that some were caught yesterday in Lewis's river opposite to us many miles above the entrance of that river. from this village of the broken arm Lewis's river is only about 10 miles distant to the S. W.-- the natives also inform us that the salmon appear <much> many days sooner in Lewis's river above the entrance of the Kooskoske than they do in that stream 13th formed a Camp on the Kooskooske 15th The Kooskoske rising fast, the water is clear and cold. 16th last night was uncommonly warm river rising fast. say 9 Inches 17th rained hard the greater part of the night wet the Chronometer by accedent. river rises 11 inches the indians caught 3 salmon at their village on the Kooskooskee above our camp some miles. they say that these fish are now passing by us in great numbers but that they cannot be caught as yet because those which first ascend the river do not keep near shore; they further inform us that in the course of a few days the fish run near the shore and then they take them with their skimming neitts in great numbers. rained untill 12 Ock. by intervails.-- 19th rained hard last night and untill 8 A M 20th rained violently the greater part of the night. air raw and cold. a nest of the large blue or sand hill crain was found by one of our hunters. the young were in the act of leaving the shell. the young of the partycoloured corvus begins to fly.-- 21st the air is remarkably dry and pure it has much the feeling and appearance of the air in the plains of the Missouri. [This remark is found only in Clark's notebook for this day. It is given on the twenty-second by Lewis.] 22nd air colder this morning than usual white frost tho' no ice. since our arrival in this neighbourhood on the 7th inst. all the rains noted in the diary of the weather ere snows on the plain and in some instances it snowed on the plains when only a small mist was perseptable in the bottoms at our camps. [The rest of this remark appears only in Clark's notebook.] (The high plains are about 800 feet higher than the small bottoms on the river and creeks.) 23rd the air is cold in the morning but warm through the day. some dew each morning. 24th air remarkably pleasant all day. 25th rained moderately the greater part of last night and untill a little before sunrise. Thunder [In Clark's notebook the comment "Thunder" is missing.] 26th the sun shone warm today, but the air was kept cool by the N W. breezes 27th the dove is cooing which is the signal as the indians inform us of the approach of the salmon. The snow has disappeared on the high plains and seems to be diminishing fast on the spurs and lower region of the Rocky Mountains. 28th had several heavy thunder showers in course of the last evening and night. the river from sunrise yesterday to sun rise this morning raised 1 ft. 10 Incs.-- dift wood runing in considerable quantities and current incredibly swift tho' smooth.-- 29th frequent and heavy showers attended by distant thunder through the night. the river raised 6 inches in the course of yesterday and 1 foot 5 I. in the course of the last night. it is now as high as there are any marks of it's having been in the spring 1805.-- at 10 A. M. it arrived at it's greatest hight having raised 1 1/2 inches from sunrise to that time. in the ballance of the day it fell 7 inches. the natives inform us that it will take one more rise before it begins finally to subside for the season and then the passage of the mountains will be practicable.-- 30th rain slight last night. the river continud to fall untill 4 A. M. having fallen 3 I by that time since sunrise. it now was at a stand untill dark after which it began again to rise. 31st within 3 Inches of its greatest hight on the 29th inst. [The remainder of this remark is found only in Clark's notebook.] and fell a little after which it rose again. The river rose 13 inches last night and continues to rise fast. from sunset on the 31st of May untill sun rise on the 1st of June it rose Eighteen inches and is now as high as any marks of it's having been for several years past. a heavy thunder cloud passed around us last evening about sunset. Some rain fell in the fore part of the night only.
May 31, 1806
Some of the young Indians Stole Some of our fish and went away in the night. we got up our horses eairly and Set out on our return our old chief and his man stayed as they had got no fish yet, so we followed back the same road we went on to the fors of the kimooenim which the Indian name of it is Toomonamah river [Toomonamah is Nez Perce "tama-nma", for the Salmon river.] which is about 150 yards wide. we followed up to the village we left the day before yesterday. their the chief directed us another way whi[ch] he said was nearer & a better road and Sent 2 boys to show us the way to a village on the road. they took us over a verry bad hill down on to the Thommonama river again then left the river ascended a high long hill near the top of which is a large village we Camped near Sd. village as night came on.
May 31, 1806
We had a fine clear morning with a heavy dew. The hunters went out with two horses for the venison; and two men went over the river to the villages. About noon a deer was seen swimming the river and some of our men killed it. Our canoe still lies under water at the opposite shore, but we have a small Indian canoe, that serves to cross in. In the afternoon the two men came from the village with some of the natives, and one of our old stock of horses, which is the last, except the two which they assure us the old Snake guide took. In the evening the weather became cloudy, and we had some rain with sharp thunder and lightening. The two hunters came in with the venison.