In 1822 the U. S. government, under the pressure of John Jacob Astor, discontinued its policy of allowing only government-appointed agents to trade in Indian Country. 3,000 trappers went West between 1822 and 1840.
In 1837 the painter Alfred Miller accompanied William Drummond Stewart, a Scottish nobleman, on an extravagant journey to the yearly trapper's rendezvous in the Rocky Mountains.
If Catlin had captured the wilderness of Rousseau, doomed in the onslaught of progress, Miller celebrated a return to Eden. His works depict white men ready to throw off civilization and participate in the Arcadian wilderness.
The next series of slides and text are from Miller's notes and sketchbooks or from his published art books on the expedition. Consider how gender, nature and contemporary artistic conventions are used in the construction of this Acadian wilderness.