[23]

MEMORANDUM

of

Robert Newell's Travels in the Teritory of Missourie

March 7, 1829. I left St Louis with Mr Wm Sublette who was the proprietor of our Camp on a hunting expediton for beever 55 men in all arived at the foot of the mountains on Sweet water the 17th of July whare we met his hunters or a part and crossed the mountain from the waters of the Missourie to the Columbia and on piers fork we fell in with Messers Smith & Jackson partners of Mr Subletts august 20th held Randezvous and Seperated for Beever hunting when all together about 175 men

It fell to my lot to go with Smith and Sublette we we went up henryes fork of Snake river on to Lewises fork crossed the mountain on to the waters of missourie took up winter qarters on the Bighorn and went to powder river and Remained untill Spring that winter Mr Sublette went to St Louis and Mr Smith in the Spring [24] went in Serch of beever from Powder to Tongue River little horn Clarks fork through priers gape to to the yellow Stone River Returned to wind river in July and about the last of July or the first of august met Mr Sublette with our equipment from St Louis and Mr Jackson from the snake Country with the ballance of forces

This Summer 1830 Messers Smith Jackson & Sublette Sold out and left the country their Successors ware Mr Fitzpatric M. Sublette Freab Gerva and J Bridger our Squad now consists of about 200 men our Randezvous over Freab & Garvie went to the Snake Country and hunters in different directions for Beever Mr fitzpatric and Sublette went to the Black foot Country with 81 men myself one of the number went to the three forks of Missourie Returned took up winter quarters on the yellow Stone

The Spring of 1831 Mr Fitzpatrick went to St Louis for Supplies Mr M. G Sublette and Bridger proceded from the yellow Stone River[25] South Came to Tongue River lost 57 head of animals by the Crows indians this is the first time I went to war on foot and probably will give my adventures at Some future time went from thare to powder River thare Bridger & Sublette Separated Sublette went to the Park on the Platte I being one of Bridgers number went with him to the head of Laramas fork met Sublette in the Park from thare to the Snake Country on Bear River near the Big lake took up Summer quarters to wait the arival of Mr Fitzpatrick with Supplies but in vain

left for fall hunt from Bear River to Greys fork of Snake River (a Scrimmge with Black feet) from thare to Snake River and on to Psalmon River a fork of the Columbia on to deer lodge River and on to the head of flat hed River at that time was called a fork of the River Missourie by our heds, Bridger and Sublette but Since[26] I travled to [k]now Better from thare we Returned to Psalmon River and met Mr Freab with Supplies from Mr Fitzpatrick and took up winter quarters with the flat heads and napercies

Spring of 1832 hunted from Psalmon River to hennrys fork to Lewises fort [fork] up Salt River Round to Piers hole Met all hunters of these parts Vanderberg Drips & Co with about 175 men William Sublette arived with Supplies for our Camp Mr fitzpatrick who was with Sublette left to come to us but was chased by the indians and Detained and Just escaped death [to] come to us. this is to be Remembered to be the largest party of whites ever Seen together north west or west of the yellow stones mouth or even thare except our American troops (aug 1832) up to the above date I think our number to exceed 350 but not much but in all whites and indians all sorts and kinds of men about 600, (a [s]crimmage with the Black feet-)[27]

Into Rondezvous got our Supplies and Scatterd in the following courses to our profession Wm Sublette to the States with the Returns M. Sublette to the west down Snake River Mr Fitzpatrick to the north wone of that number from Piers hole to Psalmon River crossed the mountain to the 3 forks of Missourie (a scrimmage with Black feet) Up to the head of the galiton fork met craig and some of our hunters we parted with at the Randezvous (met Some black feet 60 warriors made piece with them and the next day fought another party) Returned to Psalmon River and took up winter quarters.

The Spring of 1833 (I left Mr fitzatrick the 25 of Jany and Joined Capt Boniville) Broke up winter quarters and hunted on to green River whare all opposition Companies met I left Capt Boniville and engagied to Messers Fontinell and Drips Rondezvous held broke up I was Sent to fontinell \& Drips to the flat heads to trade with 7 men after 31 Days travel I found them [28] on Bitter Root River (near a place called hellsgates) on a large fork of the Columbia I Returned to Snake River whare I joined my employer Mr Drips and took up winter a quarters

In the Spring of 1834 I was Sent again to the flat heads left in March the 20th and arived at the village by the way of the head of Missourie on account of Snow on Deer lodge River nears its mouth in April with 9 men (a Scrimmage with the black feet) went with the indians up deer lodge on to the head of Missourie then on to Psalmon River on to a fork of Snake River called Commerce Creek (a party of hundred Black feet c[h]arged on our village) left there for green River accompanied by 25 indians for Suplies met the company held Rondezvous at hams fork Returned with goods to the flat head indians after 51 days travel came to the Village on Bitter root river from thare up Deer loge River on to [29] the head of Missourie Bridger came to us on piers fork near horse prairie from thare to Snake River and wintered

In the Spring of 1835 went up lewises fork in to Greys hole (a Scrimmage with Black feet on lewises fork) from thare to Salt River on to bear River up it and on to green River whare we met our Supplies from St Louis Rondezvoux over I Started from My home to go to St Louis as it appeared went to the Council Bluffs and to St Louis from thare to Kentuck and to Ohio Cincinnati my former Residence

Returned in the Spring of 1836 to St Lewis from thare independence brot me up Standing engaged to Messers Bent & St Vrain, lef thare for arkansas River on the 25 of may and arived at fort Wm Safe on the 11th of July left thare for the South fork of Platte with Wm Bent Arived and Returned the next morning was Sent [to] the arappahoes to Remain for the [30] winter found them on the fountain Caboie Remained thare untill the 8th of nov I was sent from thare to the South fork of the platte with 5 men and goods to trade with the Chiannes and Remained with them till Spring 1837.

In may I left the South fork platte returned to the arkansas fort with Bent & St vrain returned to the platte with animals delivered up my winters trade made preperations to leave for the mountans in a fuw days all was ready We left Sublette \& Vasques fort on the 19th of may

Our party now consists of three P Thompson myself and a man we engaged to assist us in packing our little bagage Subletts & Vasques fort is about 12 miles from the mountain near longs peak from thare through the Park by the way of laramas fork in the mountain over to the head of little Snake river found the Snake village four or five hundred lodges from thare to green river up the river above hams fork we found the whites engaged with the ponach indians fighting we joined the sport and shortly afterwards give up the contest as they had been engaged for 2 Days and the indians ware fortifyed in the ground and [had] plenty of horses for their consupsion

[31] We proceeded up green river to the mouth of hors creek whare all hunters ware wating the arival of the Supplies from St Louis we arived here on the 10th of June I engaged to Drips & fontinelle for one year for the perpose to trade with the crow indians I left with a small party of crows and 2 white men on the 22d of July from green river at the mouth of horse creek to Sweet water past the head of popo isha to the head of powder river to Tongue river on a north fork of tongue river we discovered a party of black feet they ran and concealed themselves in som brush our party in Searching for Some whips cords \&c which they thought their enamy had left on ariving near the brush the black feet lay wait fired and killed one of our party after cutting of heads and hair we intered the body and on the next day we arived at the crow village on the little horn (a fork of Mo) the 17th august 1837-

As the crows had committed So many depradations on the whites heretofore by Killing and robings it was their intention to Send me with them a small Supply of goods to induce them to let the whites pass in peace. in a few days after I arived the news came that the Small pox was at Fort Vanburon on the yellow Stone river (a fork Mo) the crow trading post [32] the fear of that Complant Set them running from it So verry hard it wore out severel hundred horses before we stoped the retreat we went from the little horn to the head of powder river to the big horn up to wind river and to its head whare they stopped to recruit their animals.

I left thare five in numbers to go to another village on big horn the 20th of Oct but missing that village I went on to the Yellowstone to fine our camp according to promise but being disappointed I went down to fort Vanburon for Safety I met with a party of black feet at the mouth of the big horn but being fortunate to discover them first we had no intercourse &c to the great joy of our whole army of five men (thare is no more dangerous a Country than this at present in these parts or even in north america) Fort Vanburon is conducted by Samuel Tulloch for the American fur Company.

Four of our men has been robed and Striped by the crows Since I left the village and probably killed I arived at the fort on the 9th of Nov during my stay at this place indians came and took of horses severel times and I having good luck to Save mine though concluded they must go Soon I thought it best to hunt for our camp [33] and on the 13th Dec. I left with four men one woman and child I traveled at a good rate untill Sun down camped and next morning got up and to our great dissatisfaction found our horses ware gone our little goods and chattles we put under ground and returned to fort Vanburon on foot horeseless

On the day following Some men took dogs and went and brought our baggage: dogs is used here in the winter to pack hawl trai[l or n?]s in place of horses. Mr Tullock Sent a man on express to the crows as he has Stayed 20 Days over his time we think he is killed this is now the 21 of December and no news from our camp the wether extremlngly cold buffalow in abundence

On the 22d of Dec I herd forom our camp on Powder river I went up and got my peltries I cashed one [on] my way from the crows in Nov found every thing Safe returned to fort vanburon on the 28th Dec much fatigued as we had to travle on foot and Snow bad our little party was Seven and like my Self a goode faged [a good deal fagged?] as we had to travle Day and Knight for Safety and now as I am making preperations to Start for Powder river about one hundred miles I will Stop writing till I get thare

The express Mr Tulloch Sent to the crows returned Safe

I left fort Vanburon on the 29th of December with five men 5 horses one woman and child for Powder river [34] went up rosebud two days travel (a fork of the yellowsone) over to tongue river up it a Small distance and on to powder River our Seventh day from the fort we found it cold and bad walking up powder river eight Days whare we found Mr Fontinells camp this was a hard trip as we had to perform it on foot Snow bad and extreme Cold weather I found our camp all well Mr fontinelle had gone with 25 men to the north fork of the platte for Suplies but has not yet returned. out Camp went through the black foot Country last fall without Seeing any indians we suppose many of them have died with the Small pox

We are now on powder river wating for Mr fontinelle our camp is eighty strong Coldwether and the 22d of January 1838 Mr orrick has opened trade with the crows and is much anoyed by them indians has repast too our camp and have made threts of hostility

4th of March A tremendious Storm we have lost Severel horses and mules by hard weather this winter Severel men left camp and Joined orick our time is principally Spent in peeling cotton wood bark for our horses as that is their principal food on the north fork of the platte times is hard about five trading houses to eight hundred lodges of Soux we have news of Santa fee and tous [Taos] the Spaniards have rebeled and done all they could to put down their govoner by Killing all thir officers of peace and many rich forriners they cut off the head of the governor [35] and kicked it about the Streets burnt and destroyed many buildings of value this is on a count of high duties they put on american traders times is getting hard all over this part of the Country beever Scarce and low all peltries are on the decline

We left Powder river on the 29th of March in search of bevver by the way of tongue river to the little horn met the crows on to the big horn to the yellow Stone this is beautiful Country Buffalow in abundence and Elk Deer Sheep and other game inhabit the mountains

We are at this time Lying at the mouth of 25 Yd River and our hunters out in Search of Beever May 15th 1838 Up 25 Yd River onto the Missourie the Galiton fork from thare to the Madison fork found the blackfoot trail about 5 or 6 hundred Lodges they Seperated and the largest part of them went over to the Jefferson fork of Missourie the ballance went up the Madison that being our route we overtook them in a fiew days a battle ensued the first Scrimage we Killed 7 wounded 15 as we was informed afterwards the following morning in attempting to pass up the river they made a second charge but had to give way for us to pass we past in sight of thir village Keeping up constant fire untill we had past

[36] Two Days afterwards on the head waters of Missourie we Discovered a Small village at henrys lake they Sewed [showed] all Sines of friend Ship we left them after a few hours met an man and his wife 1 child Spared this life from thare on to the watters of the Columbia Snake river found a small party of our camp lost all their horses one man wounded Henry Legon David White Stol horses from our camp and have likely made thir way to the Hudson bay Co this is a beautiful Country the largest mountains one [on] windriver and the Columbia mountains

We are at this time on Snake River June 12th 1838 3 men left this morning for to hunt the flat head village 12th. the mishonaries taking indians out of their Country General Conduct of the men Bridger with the Camp. Black feet and Small pox

From piers hole to Jacksons hole Lewis fork June 17th No Buffalow warm and pleasant we went up the grovonters fork one encampment upit [I] left the party and went in search of the St Louis out fit I went down green river at the mouth of horse creek I found whare Some of that party had been [37] that day in two days after I found them on a fork of green river they informed me the St Louis party was on their way to wind river whare they intended to hold randezvous I returned to our camp and found them on the head of green river we changed our Course went on to the head of wind river from thare down to the fork of po po isha whare we found Mr Drips with our Supplies Commenced Sales and men who had been in the company a long time commenced leaving owing to the Company being So hard Some run off Stole horses traps and other articles of value After a long and tedious time we left for hunting

went up wind river in to Jacksons hole on to piers hole and on the 5th of august I left for the hudsons bay Co on Snake river with my woman and two little boys the Distance of 150 miles we arived thare Safe and found Mr Eramatinger in Charge and I was well received and treated by him and Mr McClain. times is hard and peltries low provisions scarce indians in a bundence going in all parts in Serch of Something to Stay their Stomachs

Mr J Walker went to the Snake Country with a part of Drips camp 30 or 40 men [38] Drips took with him 80 or 90 Some severel in other directions this Randezvous august or in July terminating in august 1838 [pencilled in, obviously of a later date but in Newell's handwriting: "at Riverton, Wyo on Wind River"]

After I went to the fort a party was fitted out for the hunt of buffalow 9 of us Started from fort hall up to Camance prarie had four horses Stole after 30 Days arived [back at Fort Hall] I then left fort hall and Joined Mr Drips in piers hole went from thare [to] the head of Green River commen[ced] winter quarters with 8 men and verry Cold Nov 20 1838

Capt Drips left in Dec for wind river with his camp Capt Walker remained on Green river with a Small party whare we are now Snow about 1 foot Jan 26 1839 buffalo Scarse I spent last Christmas in Jackson hole a large vally on lewis for[k] on a hunt of Buffalo Snow about 2 feet and game in a bundence After a serious trip of Sixteen days arived found all Safe encamped with the Bonacks and Snakes we Spent the ballance of the winter Down on Green River over to hams [39] fork

This Spring commenced to open first of march 1839 on to Blacks fork Green River one of the best of places for wintering in the Rocky mountains Except Game that Generly Scarse we arived there on the 10th of march and now the 21 our horses are mending fast but poor yet we had a verry hard winter lost Severel horses and mu[les] Snow 2 \& 3 feet verry cold Tedious from Blacks fork out to Bear River left Walker on to hams fork to Green River met Drips with 4 Carts of Supplies from below held randezvoux I left with Mr F Eramatinger to fort hall left on the 9 of July arived at fort hall on the 20 1839 Missionaries from the States Griffin and Monger with their Ladies Left fort hall on the 11 of august for Browns hole up Rosses creek on to portnef up bear river found the Snake village up on bear river above muddy on to blacks fork owens and Carson came to us on muddy [40] of Blacks fork 23 aug

1839 On to Browns hole 1st of September Baker arived for Bent \& St vrain to trade 23d Biggs from Vasques 25th opposition high

I left for fort hall with Meek and one other man for goods arived thare Safe got my Supplies 45 horse loads and arived on green river mouth of Blacks fork 9th of november nothing to eat on to Browns hole found all Safe thare except about 100 head of horses that had been Stolen by the Shyanes and on account of that the whites a party from Browns hole heded by phillip Thompson and michel [went] to fort hall and Stole 14 horses and on their Return Stole 30 from the Snakes the horse thieves about 10 or 15 are gone to California for the purpose of Robbing and Steeling Shuch thing never has been Known till late. I left Browns hole for fort hall on 7th February 1840 with 300 beaver after a long trip of 45 Days I arived snow verry bad and provisions Scarse

[41] This 3d of april fine wether plenty of indians all over the country no goods times hard \&c \&c the horse thieves or banditti consists of Phillip Thompson. Mo. William New. Eleven michel. Ohio. Richard owens. Oh. Kelly belcour Exevia Malona. St Louis, Mo.

Mr Eramatinger arivd 13th June

I went to the Amarican randezvous Mr Drips Feab \& Bridger from St Louis with goods but times was certainly hard no beaver and everything dull some Missionaries came along with them for the Columbia Messers Clark Smith Littlejohn I engaged to pilot them over the mountains with their waggons and succeeded in crossing to fort hall thare I bought their waggons also of which I perchased and Sold them to the H Bay Co while at Rondezvous I had Some diffiquilty with a man by the name of Moses Harris I think he intended murder he Shot at me about 70 or 80 yards but done no damage only to [42] him self. I left the randezvous our little party consisted of 9 men and 3 woman in 17 days we arived at fort hall found all well and on the 27th of September 1840 with two waggons and my family I left fort hall for the Columbia and with Some little Difiquly I arived at walla walla thare I left one waggon and the other I had took down in a boat to vancouver and have it at this time on my farm about 25 miles from vancouver west. I arivd at the willamitte on the 15 of December 1840 and on the 25 of the Same month came to this place called the Folitine planes I likewise brought 2 american cows with me. this is to be remembered that I Robert Newell was the first who brought waggons across the rocky mountains and up to this 19th of April 1841

this year has been Spent in farming this country is not So good as Suposed as the climate is not So healthy I have had Some Sickess and also my family this country is under the influence of the hudson bay company and the [43] methodist Mission the farmers get all thir Supplies from the two places and also they are resorted to for advise in case of death to Settle their affairs the latter however I believe does the most of this as the Peoples choice Jason Lee is Supervisor of the M. Mission he has Severel Branches in this country also Several ministers of the gospel and I believe but for this mission that this little colony would do badly the Hudson B. company has encouraged Sebtlers here thare is also a Catholic mission here which influences the french or canadians who has been Servents of the H. B. Co. as yet we have no Shools here of note this has been a dry Season Small crops. I have herd from the mountains and thare has been some of my acquaintnces Kiled Since I left - Freab and others the H B Co is Still Supplying the mount[ains] with goods and on the east Side of the Rocky mountains as thare is no laws in this country we do the best we can. 1842 is past [44]

             Jan 1
     Shiane
nuncha    1
nish      2
nihe      3
nibe      4
nuhon          5
ne sute   6
nes sute  7
man oote  8
Sotie          9
Nich took 10
Ebois Stan e   live

[45]

                                                       Oct
11     1836
to Ft
Caboie    Liquor came from Fort Wm
     Frank Returned Jan 8th 1837 to fount Cab...
     Vasques Sent to North Fork Platte  25 Jan
     Newell  300 Robes 5th of Feb
     New from Arkansas to Platte on the 6 of February
     2 1/2 feet Snow fell the 7th
     Discharged Spaniard on 11th of Feb for
     neglect of Duty and Stealing &c
     Received letter of Simpson from
     fontinelle to B & S -- on the 22 of Feb
     2 ft Snow fell on 23 Feb
     Fitzpatrick back from the States March 17th

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