Journal of Captain Nathniel J. Wyeth's Expeditions to the Oregon Country.


Second Expedition - 1834

On the 5th of May having crossed the Kanzas at the agency without accident and in one Half of a day and traded as many cuds and apishemas [saddle blankets] as I wanted and some deer skins for which I paid Bacon. We started with 3 less men 4 having deserted and one new one engaged. Made this day along the Kanzas about 16 miles on a small stream having crossed one called the Lautrelle

6th. Moved along the Kanzas and made about 12 miles to noon and took an observation found the Latt to be 39 deg 38' made this day about 18 miles

7th Made about 15 miles and camped on Little Vermillion

8th. In the morning Mr. [Milton] Sublette finding that his leg would not bear travelling turned back made this d[a]y about 15 miles This day left Kanzas River

9th. Made about 20 miles and camped on a small river this day our hunter killed our first deer

10th. Made 15 miles to Big Vermillion and then 5 miles more and camped in the praire with but little wood and a little stagnant water

11. Made 9 miles to a small run then lost the trail and crossed a sluggish muddy stream running N and recrossed the same it rounding and heading North and camped at noon this day Latt. 40deg 18'. Sent a man to hunt the trail.

12th. Spent the morning mending hobbles and endeavored to get an observation for Long. but it was too cloudy in afternoon started and in about 8 mils found a camp of [William] Sublettes for nooning and marched until dark and camped the horses having had nothing to eat all day did not tie them up at 1. Ock at night was awakened by a furious running & snorting of the animals who all broke from their hobbles and left camp running in their course over any thing opposed to them spent the night in looking them up and found all but two about sun one hour high three Otoes came to us who I suppose occasioned the fright and got the two horses.

13. Started and travelled 7 hours and camped on a fork of the Blue and found the Long. to be 96deg 7'.

14th. Made W.S.W. 21 miles and struck the main Blue

15th. Made about W. 9 miles and found our Lat. to be 40deg 17' then made 12 mils W. by N. over a very level prairie and again struck the main Blue and camped

16th. Made 10 miles about W. by N. to Dinner Latt. 40deg 23' and 12 more to the Pawnee trail to the head of the Arkanzas and found that a very large party had passed it about 10 days before and a smaller one this morning.

17th. Made 3 miles up the stream crossing a very small run course W. by N. then struck out N.W. 3 miles and crossed a little run the same as passed in the morning then same course 6 mils and took an observation for Latt and found it to be 40deg 22' then 5 mils more same course and got sight of the Platte then W.N.W. 5 mils to the river and camped

18th. Raining in morning caught some Cat fish found fresh track of Indians a small party Rained hard all day moved camp 15 miles to a small grove of timber on the main land found our horses very skittish during the night.

19th. In the morning had just raised camp when we discovered two Indians who were shy of coming to us but after a while suffered us to approach them they said they were Pawnees but as we did not know the Pawnees this might be so or not perhaps Ricarees afterward saw several more on the blufs who did not come to us at noon found our Lat. 43deg 1' after traveling 13 miles W.N. in the afternoon traveled 13 miles W. and found our Long. to be 98deg 30' this night doubled guard.

20th. Moved camp from the pickett and 12 miles W. to breakfast fine clear weather old Buffaloe sign and antelope after dinner started and soon saw a band of elk one loose horse took fright at them and ran back on our trail there being no person mounted on a swift horse in camp I followed myself after going to a little creek where we nooned they struck out S. 15 miles to the heads of some little streams with timber probably the Blue where I overtook three of them my horse having failed I lost 2 fine horses. After riding about 12 miles found the Platte at our nights camp and followed it to the camp making in all a ride of about 50 miles arrived about midnight camp moved on 11 miles.

21st. Moved about N. 10 miles Lat. 40deg 33' afternoon 10 miles W. and camped after a little 3 Pawnee Scouts came to us and slept with us in the morning 12 more came and wished to persuade me to go to their camp 1 1/2 days travel N. Over the river which they forded here they stole some small things from us

22nd. Moved from the pickett and 15 miles W. about to Latt. just before nooning passed a little creek then West 11 miles and camped.

23rd. 20 miles W. to the crossing of the South fork of the Platte about 8 miles above the forks found Latt. to be 40deg 41'

24th. Crossed without difficulty and made up the N. side of the South Fork about 4 miles W. then struck N.W. about 1 mile to the North fork which is here the largest then made about W. by N. about 15 miles and near to some cut blufs which come close to the river

25th. W. by N. 12 mils passing another place where the blufs cut the river and here found much cedar on them and camped on the river in a wide bottom found no Buffaloe today killed one antelope. Aftemoon 10 miles W.N.W. at night found the variation of the compass 1deg 30' west at midnight our horses took fright but being strongly picketed and hobbled but few got out of camp.

26th. I date this the 26th having over noted one day heretofore in afternoon 12 miles W.N.W. passing some steep cut blufs which cut the river afternoon made 12 mils and camped still no buffaloe Latt. 40deg 22' at night.

27th. Made this day 20 mils during a severe gale from the N.N.W. the sand cut like a knife and it was altogether a most disagreeable day this day saw a little timber on some hills to the south of the river about 5 miles distant also 2 bands of wild horses killed one Bull so poor as to uneatable.

28th. Killed Buffaloe plenty today Came in sight of the chimney about noon made 22 mils wind still high N.N.W. One of our outriders saw six Indians mounted today.

29th. No[o]ned at the Chimney Lat. 41deg 51' After travelling this forenoon 11 miles afternoon 10 mils

30th. Passed through between two high blufs through a pretty good pass and avoided going between one of them and the river where there are bad ravines. Made this day 22 miles to Horse creek.

31st. Made after crossing Horse creek at starting about 20 miles.

June Ist. Made 15 miles to Laramies fork just before coming to which we made a cut off of about 3 miles over and about 5 miles by the river forded this fork with ease and made 8 miles up the Platte in afternoon. At the crossing we found 13 of Sublettes men camped for the purpose of building a forte he having gone ahead with his best animals and the residue of his goods he left about 14 loads.

2nd. Made along the river 5 miles then struck out into the hills about W.N.W. and made 12 miles to a little creek in the afternoon made 13 miles to pretty large creek and camped for the night the whole course this day about W.N.W. Left at Noon camp a bull and cow whose feet had worn out.

3rd Made 15 miles and nooned on the river this course N.W. by N. and cut over the hills about 1/2 the way the river taking a bend quite to the N. and passing through bad rocks. Afternoon made 6 miles cutting two very bad blufs but still following the river and camped on it

4th. Forded the river and made W.N.W. 17 miles along the river and camped on it Sublette one day ahead.

5th. Made along the river 24 miles along the River

6th. Made along the river 24 miles W. by N.

7th. Made 12 miles along the river to the red Butes so called and is the place at which the river turns S.W. and we leave to strike for Sweet Water Sublette 2 days ahead weather chilly and windy. Poor grass for several days.

8th. This morning I had intended to have turned out the horses at 2 ock. and guarded them but during the night the horses appeared uneasy and appeared to think there were Indians about which induced me to keep them up until sunrise when we started W.S.W. from the Red Butes and made 18 miles to the high ridge of land and then one point more to the South and 12 miles more to a small creek with poor grass Several of the horses nearly done up for want of grass and from fatigue this day killed two grisly bears and many Buffaloe a little shower toward night

9th. Made S.W. 10 miles and made Rock Independence on which W.L. Sublette had noted that he had arrived on the 6th but I think he could not have done so before the 7th.39 I noted my name then made S.W. along the creek 41,z2 miles to a place where the creek puts through cut rocks each side perpendicular and about 60 feet high [Devils Gate] the trail goes through another place on a level and about 100 feet South of the river the rock intervening then made 6 miles W.S.W. between mountains but on a level and along the creek.

10th. General courses W.S.W. and along Sweet Water high granite hills on each side made 25 miles

11th. W. 10 mils then N.W. 9 mils to camp on Sweet Water

12th. S.W. forenoon a cut off of 10 miles to Sweet Water afternoon S.W. 9 miles along Sweet Water. Long. 110deg 30'

13th 3 miles along Sweetwater S.W. then took up a ravine to the W.N.W. about 1 mile then W. by S. 9 miles to a creek of Sweet Water runing into it about 8 miles off and S.E. then W. by S. 7 miles to another creek of Sweet Water running about S.E. and emtying into it at about 10 miles Sweet Water appears to run in cut rocks

15th. [14th.] Made due West 5 mils and crossed a small creek of Sweet Water which comes from a point of granite rocks about 2 miles from which we passed then W. 7 mils to a spring of good cold water and good grass. Wind river mountains now bear N.N.W. and a[re] covered with snow about 20 mils distant. Latt. 42deg 44 ' Afternoon made W. 6 miles to Sweet Water creek main body going about S.E. and coming out of cut rocks then W. by S. 16 miles over broken ground to one fork of Sandy running S. by E. here horses wer tired Buffaloe plenty.

15th. W.N.W. 9 miles to Big Sandy where we found Buffaloe plenty My hunters [Sansbury and Wilkins] not yet come in been out 4 days fearful they have been scalped.

16th. Made down the Sandy S.W. by W. 15 miles then 4 S.E. by E and camped on this stream so far the grass is miserable and the horses are starving and also at last nights camp they eat something that has made many of them sick. the same thing happened two year since on the next creek west.

17th. S.S.W. 10 miles down Sandy which makes here a bend to the right afternoon S. 9 miles passing at three miles the mouth of little Sandy and camped without any grass

18th. 12 miles in the forenoon S.S.W. making small cut off afternoon W.S.W. 7 miles camped in good grass.

19th. About S. by W. 8 miles and camped 1 mile above the mouth of Sandy on Green river or Seckkedee on the night of the 17th I left camp to hunt Fitzpatric and slept on the prairie in morning struck Green river and went down to the forks and finding nothing went up again and found rendesvous about 12 miles up and much to my astonishment the goods which I had contracted to bring up to the Rocky Mountain fur Co. were refused by those honorable gentlemen. Latt. 41deg 30'.

20th. Made W.S.W. 8 miles then S. by E. 15 miles to Hams Fork running here S.E. and a small stream.

21. Same camp.

22d. Same camp

27th. Moved up the river N.W.10 miles grass here pretty good but little timber and none but willows for the last 6 miles.

To 3rd. July. Same camp then up Hams fork 10 miles N.W. moved up the fork about W. by S. 12 miles to many Indians with us for comfort or safety they let their horses among ours so that it is impossible to guard any of them.

4th. Moved up the creek about 1 mile then leaving it made W. by N. over a divide and by a pass which occurs in the lowest part of a high range of hills 7 miles then W. 13 miles down a ravine which had a little water in it to its junction with another small run and the two are called Muddy here we celebrated the 4th I gave the men too much alcohol for peace took a pretty hearty spree myself. At the camp we found Mr. Cerry [Cerre] and Mr. Joseph R.] Walker who were returning to St. Louis with the furs collected by Mr. Bonnevilles company about 10 pack and men going down to whom there is due $10,000

5th. Made down Muddy 5 miles W. then N.W. cutting a divide into a small ravine which has a little water in it 8 miles then leaving the ravine cutting moderately high land to Bear river 4 miles. Then down Bear river N. by W. 4 miles to camp

6th. Made down the river N.N.W. 5 miles to Smiths Fork which is a short stream from the N.E. by N. and nearly as large as Bear river then same course 3 miles more then N.W. 5 miles here comes in Kamas creek from the N. then W.N.W. 3 and crossed Bear river three more and recrossed then cut over some high hills same course 8 miles more and struck the river again then down the river same course 1 mile to camp nothing to eat due south of this camp about 5 miles is the little lake [Bear Lake] so called which is about 20 miles long.

7th. Made 3 miles N.N.W. and passed a little creek the same course 6 miles along the river, then 3 miles N.W. to camp all day fine grass. During this day a multitude of fine springs coming into the river. today killed one bull.

8th. made N.W. 10 miles then 10 miles W.N.W. to a place where there is soda spring or I may say 50 of them. These springs throw out lime which deposits and forms little hillocks of a yellowish colored stone there is also here a warm spring which throws water with a jet which is like Bilge water in taste there is also here peet beds which sometimes take fire and leave behind a deep light ashes in which animals mire Killed one Bull today but so poor as to be hardly eatable having in the course of the day lost a horse will remain here to hunt him up

9th Same camp assended a mountain and from it could see that Bear river took a short turn round sheep rock about 2 miles below the spouting steam and goes south as far as I could see there are in this place many hundreds of mounds of yellowish stone with a crater on top formed by the deposits of the impregnated waters of this place. Killed one Buffaloe.

10th. Moved N. by W 3 mils cutting a range of hills then N.N.W. 17 miles to Blackfoot on which I found Boneville again and plenty of Buffaloe and killed 3 Grisly Bears during the day passed many small funnel shaped holes in the lava having the appearance of small craters.

11th. Made W. 6 miles cutting a range of hills then following in a valley formed by these hills and another range Made W.N.W. 10 miles to a little brook running N. by W. to camp Buffaloe today saw one Blackfoot on foot in the hills who ran like a good fellow.

12th. Made W. 3 miles and came upon a small creek which was said to be Portneuf it may possibly be the same water as that we camped on last night but running S. by E crossed this and a high range of hills and struck a stream which is said to be Ross creek this runs about W. after 9 miles more camped saw but few Buffaloe today.

13th. No Buffaloe saw elk on Snake River which we struck after 6 miles W. by N. in some small slew saw a great quantity of fine trout about 2 lbs. weight

14th. Went down the river about 3 miles and found a location for a fort and succeeded and killed a Buffaloe near the spot

15. Commenced building the fort and sent out 12 men to hunt to be gone 12 days and continued at work on the fort a few days and fell short of provisions and was obliged to knock off in order to obtain food sent out some men for Buffaloe they returned in two days with plenty. The 12 returned the 28th day at night. On the 26th a Frenchman named Kanseau was killed horse racing and the 27th was buried near the fort he belonged to Mr. McKays camp and his comrades erected a decent tomb for him service for him was performed by the Canadians in the Catholic form by Mr. Lee in the Protestant form and by the Indians in their form as he had Indian family. he at least was well buried.

30 Mr. McKay left us and Mr Jason] Lee and Capt. Stewart with him

6th. [Aug.] Having done as much as was requisite for safety to the Fort and drank a bale of liquor and named it Fort Hall in honor of the oldest partner of our concern we left it and with it Mr. Evans in charge of 11 men and 14 horses and mules and three cows we went down the river S.W. 4 miles and found a ford crossed and made N.W. 7 miles to the head of a spring and camped in all 29 strong. Fort Hall is in Latt. 43deg 14' Long. 113deg 35'

7th. Started at day light and traveled 10 hours as fast as possible N.W. by W. 30 miles to the Bute. being the most southwardly one and from it the other two Butes bear N.N.E. the farther about 20 miles off the other midway the Three Tetons about 100 miles off and bearing N.E. the day was hot and we suffered some for water and found but a small supply on the N. side of the Bute a miserable chance for our horses and not a good one for ourselves

8th. Started at sunrise and made N.W. 10 miles to Godins river then crossed it and made in the same direction 12 up the river and camped in fine grass where we struck the river there is no grass nor until we camped above I am told it is fine found no appearance of buffaloe

9th. Made due W. 16 miles striking for the N. side of it a pretty high hill and struck up the mountains close on the N. side of it then wound into the mountains in a S.W. course finding water at 5 mils this we followed 3 miles N.W. and struck a pretty large creek which we followed N.N.E. 1 mile and camped just at starting killed a Bull and separated from Abbot and a small party of trappers accompanied by Antoine Godin whom I sent out for Beaver.

10th. Made 7 mils down the creek N.N.E. to Godins river the same we left day before yesterday then N.W. 3 miles then West 14 miles today saw a large fire in the mountains on our left suppose them to be Diggers keeping for safety in the hills the Blackfeet trouble them even here saw one band of Buffaloe cows today killed one calf the party I parted from viz Antoine and Abbot are before us on this river.

11th. Made W. 9 miles then 18 SW the angle of the two courses occurs at what is called the Spring prairie which is about 10 miles over in the center of which there are three tolerable Butes these Butes when you approach from the East look like three but when from the West show as two this day killed an old Bull very strong

12th Moved 3 miles up the creek S.W. at which place the creek divides into about equal parts the one going south I took by the advice of one [Thornburg] who said he had passed before followed this up one mile and a branch going E. 3 farther another E. 4 miles farther looked so bad camped took a horse to explore the route 1/2 mile above camp the stream branches the right at small distance heads in an amphitheater of inaccessible mountains followed the left 4 miles S. by E. and this also heads in an amphitheater. We drove 2 Bulls before us which we killed they being unable to pass. I climbed up the clefts an[d] in passing over the snow had liked to have been killed in the following manner passing over some snow and on which the water was running and being afraid of caving in I missed my foothold in a slippery place and went gradually sliding down to a precipice but succeeded at last in averting my progress to destruction by catching the only stone which projected above the icy snow I however reached the summit and looked into another defile running E. like the one I came up. Got to the bottom again and found one of our two mules gone and being in want of meat packed the other with part of one of the Bulls and walked barefoot to camp during the night through an infernal rough rocky prickly Bruisy swampy woody hole.

13th. Moved down creek back to the commencement of the South Fork then took the other about S.W. by W. at two miles up a creek from the N. forming about half of the stream then three miles farther where the rest divides into two parts very small passed the mountain in a south course between these last forks up a gentle fine trail and not more than 1 mile to the top then down by a very steep bad trail. South still along a branch of Malad 5 miles to tolerable grass and camped this last part of the route about the worst road that I ever passed.

14th. After shoeing some horses that were lamed yesterday started and made 9 miles S.S.W. at 2 of which got a small creek from the N.E. at the end of the 9 miles got a fork of about equal size to the one I came down from the S.W. then made S.E. by S. 10 miles and camped got a creek from the N.E. at 2 miles of it and at 7 one from the S.W. Saw no game today the dusky grouse plenty for three days past Horses much knocked up with sore feet.

15th. After crossing the stream passed up a ravine S.W. to its head then crossed some low grassy hills and at 12 miles crossed a small creek going S.E. this creek forks at this place then at two miles in all 14 miles S.W. crossed another which we followed two miles S.S.E. then left it on our left and cut a pretty high hill 4 miles S.S.W. and came down to the plain of Snake River then 3 miles W. to a creek with a fine bottom but no water except what remains in little pools, but excellent grass here found two lodges of Snake Indians.

16th. Made 28 miles W. following the main trail which is good perfectly level and distinct except in one place where it crosses several small branches which in the spring I presume are miry which occasions the traveller to go in no particular place during this days march I observed some low hills on the South side of us which gradually approach and at this camp are about 8 miles distant between us and them a little river appears to run to the W. which I am in hopes is Reeds other wise called Big Woody [Boise R.] Today the travelling was fine and many little streams of water cross the trail at this camp which is on a very small thread there commence small irregularities just enough to note the place.

17th. Made 20 miles due West over a country with easy Hills good and distinct trail and often water in very little streams. Country mostly burnt out by the Indians who have passed here lately going up to Buffaloe. Killed some dusky grouse and dug some kamas which assisted our living a little also found some choke cherries and saw one Indian at a distance on Horse back who fled.

18th. Made over a hilly country 12 miles W. until we passed a high stony hill then bending N.W. made 10 miles more over a stony Hilly but distinct trail with not much water saw a track of a Bull made this morning altho there is very little old signs in this section. Camped on a nearly dry creek running W. today lost 2 Horses.

19th. Left the little run on which we camped last night going here N.N.W. on our right and put out as near as I could judge W. 10 miles the first three over a divide of high steep hills then taking a little run followed it out of the worst hills along this run were many little Indian camps we then left it and went W.N.W. 15 miles and struck Woody River in cut rocks at about 7 miles of this last course struck the run on which we camped last night at Woody we saw plenty of Salmon but had no means of catching any of them this day found a colt in the Rush probably left by the Indians on which I mean to Breakfast tomorrow morning being short of provant.

20th. Followed the river down W. by N. 22 miles in the course of the day traded of some Inds. enough salmon for a Lunch and consumed the remaining provisions

21st. No Breakfast. Feel very much purified in the flesh. 12 miles down the creek W. at noon found Indians of whom we traded enough Salmon with a dead one we picked up in the brook and a few birds for a dinner afterwards traded 2 Bals Salmon of the Inds.

22nd. Made 5 miles W. then the trail cut a point of higher ground of about 2 miles and again struck the river and crossed it made on the other side 7 miles W. in all this day 15 miles W.

23rd. Made West 9 miles and found a small village of Snakes of whom we could only trade a very few salmon then 5 more in all 14 miles along the Big Wood R. and arrived at Snake River which we forded by wetting our packs a little here we found a few lodges of very impudent Pawnacks of whom we traded a half Bale of Salmon afterward 4 miles N. along the W. side of Snake River and camped near a few lodges of Inds.

24th. 6 miles N. then made a cut off N.N.W. 4 miles to R. Malheur where we found but three or four Indians and consequently got but little Salmon and consequently may starve a little between this and Walla Walla afternoon 7 miles N. passing not far from the River. I had forgot to note that on Big Wood River the Indians attempted to steal some of our horses but the horse guards discovered them and they failed. Scorpions are here quite common two nights since I was just about laying down when on my Blkt I saw something move I folded it in the Blkt. and on carrying it to the fire found it to be a very good sized scorpion. This day at noon parted from Richardson and 8 men to go up Malheur and other creeks to trap there is something melancholy in parting with men with whom one has travelled so far in this uncertain country. Our party is now 17 boys Indians literati and all.

25th. This days march was in many different courses but I average them at 23 miles N.W. and camped just before where the trail finally leaves the Snake river and at the same camp where I overtook two years since my men who without orders were leaving the country while I was up Malhuer trapping. Traded this day about 70 salmon which makes a tolerable supply of provisions for the cut to Walla Walla.

26th. Made about 20 miles in about a N.W. direction up Brule [Burnt River] Last night lost two Horses which I think were stolen and today two more gave out. I now think of leaving two men behind to bring up some of the worst animals otherwise I fear I shall loose many of them.

27th. After leaving Sunsbury [Nicholas Sansbury] and [Calvin] Briggs to bring up the worn out horses I left and making a cut off to the right going up a ravine across another and down a third came again upon Brule, at the open Prairie and camped for noon at the upper end of it on a little run and cashed 24 bars lead and 18 Traps general course N.W. 14 miles afternoon 9 miles N.W.W. following the little creek up and camped on a little prairie near the head of it of about 20 acres here there is two trails one N.W. the other N. the N.W. one I shall try.

28th. Here taking the left hand trail we followed it 12 miles N.W. when it disappared I then took a N. course and at 8 miles came on Powder river which we followed down about 5 miles and camped this afternoon I shall go out to see where the trail crosses the river. This day killed an antelope and a Fawn and saw fresh Elk Track.

29th. Turned up the creek again and after arriving at where we first struck the river made 6 miles W. by N. then into cut rocks then W.N.W. 4 miles more and Nooned on a little water in a ravine during the forenoon two men whom I had left behind with the poor animals brough[t] up all but two also during the forenoon two men got lost and our hunter [Hubbard] got lost yesterday all missing tonight. Afternoon made 8 miles N.W. and camped in cut rocks on the main river at a place apparently not frequented either by Indians or whites but there are Salmon here but we have no means of catching any without waiting too long. I think by the looks there are Beaver here but will ascertain in the morning in order that my trip here may not be entirely lost.

30th. Made 8 miles up the creek through Cut Rocks during which time killed one Salmon and Two Otter so much provisions and Nooned on the Walla Walla trail West Fork the East being the one I descended on my first Tour afternoon made N.N.W. on the Trail. Here plain and good 15 miles at 5 of which crossed another Fork of Powder River but dry at 5 more a little water and at camp a little and but a little country rolling and soil good. At our camp two lodges of Kiuses

31st. Made 15 miles N.N.W. good soil and not very hilly and nooned at the Grand Ronde where I found some Kiuse Indians, Capt Bonneville and two of Mckays men and learned that Capt. Stewart and Mr. Lee passed two days before. Afternoon took the Walla Walla Trail N.N.W. 12 miles and camped at a very small Prairie with a little stream going N.W. Killed 5 Hens today. On allowance still.

1 Sept. After about 5 miles decended a very bad mountain and followed a dry creek then assended another bad mountain and nooned with out water at 8 miles of very bad going afternoon making along a ridge of mountain 16 miles arrived at the Ottilla [Umatilla] the trail plain the ground stony about N.W. course but indirect so far from the Three Butes every day has been thick smoke like fog enveloping the whole country last night we camped at 10 ock having found no water and the whole country burnt as black as my Hat affording as poor a prospect for a poor sett of Horses as need be.

2nd Left camp behind and proceed across the Utalla River to the N. and up a mountain then took a slight ravine going N.W. and crossing several trails until the ravine leads to a dry willowed creek going N.E. with a little water in puddles then N.W. up a ravine to the height of land which is a gentle slope then leaving the trail and going a few Hundred yards to the left followed a Dry ravine to the Walla Walla River 22 miles in all N.W. then down the Walla Walla W. by N. 10 miles to Fort Walla Walla where I found Mr. Pambrum [Pambrun] who did the honors of the Fort in his usual handsome stile also found Capt. Stewart and Mess Lees who arrived two days since. Mr. Mckay for some reason remained in the mountains.

3rd. Remained at Walla Walla this day and made arrangements for going down at night Capt Thing and the residue of the party came up.

4th. In morning left Walla Walla in a boat hired by Capt. Stewart after proceeding 4 miles obliged to come to land to tighten the canoe.

5 - 6 - 7th Down the river and landed to Hire canoes at the Dalles for the party still behind.

8th. Waiting at the Dalles for party

9th. Waiting at same place party arrived at night with news that they drowned one Horse and the Jackass in crossing the River I valued him more than 10 horses as a breeder.

10th. At noon having with Difficulty hired three canoes started down the river with three Indians on board. Wind high and soon increased to a gale swamped one of the canoes which frightened the Indians back. Obliged to lay by with two of the canoes behind.

1lth. Walked back and brot up the two canoes. Gale still furious and finding that my people were not good boatsmen enough to follow me left the two boats in charge of Capt. Thing and at noon put ahead made about 10 miles and swamped the canoe.

12th. Gale still violent and canoe so leaky as to require one man to Bail the whole time kept on until noon and camped until night when it calmed and we put ahead and made to the Cascades the roar of which warned me to camp. Here overtook Capt. Stewart.

13th. Made our boat a little tighter with some pitch obtained of Capt. Stewart and made the portage of the Cascade carrying our things about 1 mile and letting our boat down with ropes raining hard made til 9 ock. at night when it rained so hard that with the leakage we could keep the boat free of water no longer and put ashore.

14th. At 2 ock in morning cleared up a little and we put on but it kept drizzling at 9 ock. made the Saw mill above the Fort and got some breakfast not having eaten since noon the day before at 12 ock arrived at Fort Vancouver where I found Doct. McLaughlin in charge who received us in his usual manner he has here power and uses it as a man should to make those about him and those who come in contact with him comfortable and happy.

15th. Early in the morning having hired another canoe put ahead and in a rainy day at about 12 ock. met the Bg [Brig] May Dacre in full sail up the River boarded her and found all well she had put into Valparaiso having been struck by Lightning and much damaged. Capt Lambert was well and brot me 20 Sandwich Islanders and 2 Coopers 2 Smiths and a Clerk.

16th. Kept on up the river in order to make Fort Vancouver and pay my respects to Doct. McLaughlin but the wind failed and we could not.

17th. Took the gig and went up to Tea Prairie to see about a location but found none.

18th. Came on board and put down the river for Oak point where we mean to examine for a location.

l9th. Came too at Cameans [Casineau's Village] house and concluded to remain at least for the winter.

20th. After setting the forges at work and commencing a coal kiln houses etc. started up the river Wallammut in a gig the gig followed the Wallammut 1 mile then took a creek to the right and after 5 miles came to the farm of Mr. Thomas Mckay. where I was treated with great kindness by [Louis] LaBonte his foreman and of him procured horses and proceded by land until near night over hilly wooded country near night came out into large plains of good lands surrounded with good timber some oak and overtook Mess. Lees who had started the day before me and camped with them they are in search of a location.

21st. Put out in the morning days travell through good lands rolling sufficient and assorted timber and water. At 3 ock. came to crossed the Wallamut at Duportes [J.B. Desportes] House and from him got fresh Horses and proceed up on the E. side of the river to [Joseph] Jervais 10 miles.

22nd. Not suiting myself as to a farm returned to Duportes and went to look at a prairie about 3 miles below his place and concluded to occupy it it is about 15 miles long 7 wide surrounded with fine timber and a good mill stream on it.

22d Laid out a farm afternoon took a canoe and decended as far as falls.

23rd. Made the portage of the falls and was taken violently sick of vomiting and purging probably caused by having eaten some Lamprey Eels recovered toward night and arrived at Fort Vancouver and finished an arrangement in regard to trade.

24th. Went down the river to the vessel.

25th. Making preparation for sending out parties

26th. Do. & sent off Sunsbury to trade Horses at the Dalles. Sent Stout up the Wallammut with 2 men and implements to commence farm and started myself up to Vancouver on business.

28th. Up the Wallamut with Mr. Nuttall and Townsend and Mr. Stout.

29th. Going up to the falls and went a small distance up the Clackamas River to look at a spot there found it would not do. Saw there a chalk formation

30th. Returning down the rivers.

31st [Oct. 1st.] At night reached the vessell at Carneans from this time until the 13th Oct. making preparation for a campaign into the Snake country and arrived on the 13th at Vancouver and was received with great attention by all there

14th. Made up the river 12 miles

15th. Made up the River 11 miles

16th. Made up the River 13 miles to the Cascades.

17, 18, 19. Delayed by strong winds and making portage on the last day at night sent a division off under charge of Capt. Thing

20, 21, 22nd. Same camp with nothing to eat but what we catch out of the river with our lines not liking to broach our stores for the voyage

23rd. At sundown our boats arrived from above and I immediately started up the river we pulled all night except stopping to cook at midnight

24th. After taking breakfast and giving the Kanackas [Hawaiians] two hours sleep we put up the river with a head wind day raw and chill

25th. Arrived at noon at the Dalles and found all the people well and but one horse traded.

26th. Started Capt. Thing with 12 Kanackas and 6 whites and all the best Horses [to Fort Hall.]

27th. Remained at same camp and traded 5 Horses at about $5.00 of goods each

28th. Started the boats back and Hubbard down by land with 13 horses for the farm

29th. & 30th. Same camp traded 4 Horses.

31st. Started up the river Kanackas on foot for want of Horses and goods on miserably poor animals To the 7th Nov. moving slowly up the river during which time and before traded 18 Horses and 600 lbs dried Salmon which I have reserved for provisions after we leave the river when I know we shall get none and having hired a canoe for Walla Walla dispatched her with this salmon 2 loads of traps one woman one Indian and two whites she sank once but we recovered all and suffered one days delay only to dry the fish we have lived chiefly on trash and dogs fearing to commence our stock of provisions expecting to get little or nothing all winter and I do not mean to starve except when I cant help it.

8th Traded one Horse a few drops of rain today and for more than two thirds of the days since the 1st of the month. Kept along the river traded 8 dogs today being a 2 days rations.

9th. Moved along the River Traded 1 dog but no Horses

10th. Left camp and went into Walla Walla found Mr. Pambrum well and good natured, and got the news that Capt. Things 12 Kanacas had deserted him and that he had gone in search of them on their trail.

11th. Went to Capt. Things camp and learned from Mr. [Abel] Baker that the Kanackas had taken about 2 bales of goods and 12 horses Returned to Walla Walla on the way met the men who went with Capt. Thing they had not been successful dispatched an interpreter Mr. Richardson and two other men down the River in a canoe to head the fellows.

12th. Moved camp up the river a small piece for grass having crossed yesterday no success in trading horses today the Indians appear to think their fortunes are to be made by an opposition but they will find their mistake today got word that the Kanackas had not touched the Columbia nor passed the Utalla River and that Richardson had got a party of Indians to accompany him and horses and had taken up pursuit on land.

13th. Richardson stil out At night dispatched 4 men after two Kanackas that have been seen by the Indians about 15 miles below Walla Walla on the main river.

14th. Robinson and Richardsons party returned with no success Robinson had seen the track of shod Horses within 5 miles of Walla Walla

15th. At 10 [o]ck this morning dispatched Richardson and Robinson with two men to trace out the track seen by Robinson.

16th. An Indian brot in one shod horse which had been taken by the Kanackas he found it at the Utalla River and brot word that there saw two of the scamps had bot a canoe and gone down leaving no horse except that which they took and one alive which he brot in.

17th. Robinson & Richardson Retumed no news yet of the rest.

18th. Finding there is no immediate hope of getting the kanackas I today dispatched Capt. Thing to Fort Hall having 19 men viz 4 Kanackas 10 white men and himself a fur [free] man and three Nez Perces 19 in all. This is a picked up lot and I have great fears they will commit Robbery and desertion to a greater extent than the Kanackas have done but I was obliged to trust to the chance it is late and the Blue Mounts. are now covered white with snow altho the grass is green here within 30 miles of them.

l9th. Went up the Walla Walla River about 7 mils and raised a deposit of goods which I had made in the ground there fearing that some of Capt. Things men who knew where it was might desert and raise it and attempt to go to the Spanish Country. I am now quite sick with a fever but must keep doing.

20th. Spent the day arranging packs for a move Weather clear and cold with much hoar frost and mist.

21st. Deposited the spare goods on hand at Walla Walla fort

22nd. Finished arranging for moving and given up all the Horses still missing viz. 2.

23rd. Moved down the Walla Walla River and camped on the Columbia about 6 miles below the Walla Walla taking leave on the way of Mr. Pambrun the gentleman in charge of the fort Still not well.

24. Moved about 15 miles down the Columbia and camped without wood night quite cold near some bad rapids just above the mouth of the Utalla where I have a cash of traps which I intend to raise.

25. Moved about 15 mils down the river and camped I had forgot to mention that on the 23rd in the morning when I was about loading the horses I found that Ira Long, a sick and as we have supposed crazy Kanacka, was missing I then thought that he woud go at once to Walla Walla but do not hear of him yet I am at a stand to make up my mind wether he went out of camp and died suddenly or drowned in the river or ran off what he should run off for no one can conceive as no duty had been required of him and he had tea and other luxurys given him on acct. of sickness that no one else had it is a very strange affair to me. Today I hear that one of the two Kanackas who went down the river in a canoe as per former report has been killed for killing horses by the Indians other reports say a Kanacka has killed an Indian. I also hear that 6 of the runaways are on the heads of John Days River the whole of which storys I take to be lies invented to tell me in the hopes of a small present of tobacco. We live on dogs chiefly good luck traded 4 today.

26th. Made about 12 mils down the river and during the day traded a young fat dog.

27th. Moved about 14 mils down the river traded one poor little dog and 4 dried salmon. We hear such contardictory and impossible accounts from the Indians of the Kanackes that I do not know what to believe.

28th. Moved down the River 15 miles traded nothing all day providentially killed one goose which made supper and breakfast for 5 of us. Snowed a little this day and of course not much comfort for a little cold and wet spoils all the comfort of our camps.

29th. 16 mils down the river killed nothing traded 2 dogs and some little deer meat dried. Snowed all the first part of the day and uncomfortably cold rains tonight very uncomfortable some of us have no coats men grumble.

30th. The rain of last night changed to snow and this morning the Earth is white and the weather cold made 12 miles and crossed John Days River then 3 more along the main River and camped with nothing but grass to cook our supper.

31st. Made today 12 miles the last of yesterdays and some of todays march pretty bad travelling for the horses owing to cut rocks camped one mile up the river of falls called by the French "Revieu des Shutes". I do not know if from the numerous rapids of this river or its proximity to the great falls of the Columbia which are about 3 miles below its mouth. There is here a small villeage of Inds. from whom I understand by signs that the two Kanackes who decended the river stole horses here or killed Horses and in some wrangle with the chief concerning it one of the Kanackas shot him. I shall be sorry if this is true as in such case I shall be obliged to make a signal example of him both in order to quiet the Indians and prevent their rising upon the whites and as a terror to the other Kanackas.

Dec. 1st. After trading 4 dogs and a few salmon and roots and ascertained that there was no ford above or near us and that the road lay on the river we moved camp down to the mouth and crossed at a rapid and tolerable deep ford then assended the hill by a ravine and descending again struck a good sized Beaver Creek at 6 miles due South while on the divide could see far ahead of a dreary snowy exposed country without a stick of timber to relieve the eye except far in the distance a black looking mass like a cloud of pine timber.

2nd. Moved camp early and left the creek on which we camped by a ravine to the right running S.S.W. followed it to the height of land then down a ravine to the creek 3 miles S.S.W. then S.S.E. to the left of the creek by a ravine 5 more and camped We here find some little oak timber traded today about 30 lbs. dried deer meat.

3rd. Made 16 mils to the River des Shutes S.S.E. and camped near about 20 Lodges of Indians had to buy what little wood we used a thing I mortally detest last night about 12 sett in to snow before morning turned to rain which lasted all day the coldest I ever knew and blew a gale in our teeth this has been a miserable uncomfortable day the first part of it we assended gradually until we reached a high ridge then decended suddenly to the river on the ridge considerable snow and the whole country covered with little round cones of earth denoting that the winds blow over this divide continually and strong. Grass is far as I could see pretty good.

4th. Moved camp S.S.W. 3 miles and camped on the fork of the River coming from timbered hills to the W.N.W. We hear that the two Kanackas havebeen followed by the Indians and killed in revenge for killing one of them and their Horses.

5th. Same camp trying to trade horses get none yet.

6th. Same camp

7th. Same camp

8th. Same camp

9th. Same camp During all this time traded but one Horse, but fared well enough for food as we obtained as many dogs as we could eat during the time Gully my Indian having lost his horse went out to hunt him and as I believe with a determination to quit me he found his horse and sent it to camp by an Indian with word to send his things with some trifling excuse but I kept the Horse and things the Indian whom he sent said he would go and take the Horse for which I gave him a flogging and he went off during this time we percussioned 3 Rifles our powder being so badly damaged as to render flint locks useless. In this vicinity there are Elk and Deer as we trade their meat and skins of the Inds. in small quantities the grass here is good and here I cashed some goods our horses being to poor to carry them on.

10th. Moved but without our guide whom I had engaged who was among the missing when we started and I suppose engaged only to get something but without intending to start We took a S.S.W. course and crossed the fork on which we had camped for some days past and after mounting the small mountains which range along this fork found an extensive plain beyond which white and high rose a range of mountains disheartening to look at but ahead is the word and the spirit seems to raise with the occasion this range runs E. & W. made this day 11 miles to the foot of the range along which is a small stream here we cashed some provisions for our return route and some loads of dry goods which our horses are too weak to carry.

11th. S.S.W. and mounted the mountains which we found much less formidable than they appeared to be the earth and trees are covered with a heavy hoar frost which at a distance made them look as if covered deep with snow of which there was but little these mountains have scattering groups of pine timber and some oak and the little plains in them have brown cedars similar to those of N.E. but still of a different sort but yet the robins in considerable number feed on the berries which reminded me of old pleasures and home where I have often been out to shoot these birds from the laving. but these are too painful to be indulged and the present evil is enough without calling up old joys to enhance it made this day 15 miles and camped on snow water with good pine wood day cloudy wind N.E. and cold Saw the first elk and deer sign for some time they say we cannot cross the divide to Clamat but I will go as far as I can.

12th. Engaged an Indian Guide last night but he too it seems has backed out as I cannot find him this morning Made one mile down the ravine in which we camped and came to a small creek running about E. then assended the hills and after 5 mils came to a larger creek then 3 miles more where the trail gave out then courses S.S.W. then struck S. by E. 3 mils and crossed a small creek this and the last running E then 3 mils more and camped on a dry ravine all these last courses S. by E. grass this far pretty good and country timbered and prettily levell today with small prairies. Saw much Elk and Deer signs but killed none.

13th. Made 5 miles S. by E. over level timbered with small openings country and came to a creek with very bad cut rock banks at least 400 feet high we had much difficulty in getting our horses down to the water and up the opposite bank but succeeded after laming several of our horses this creek is rapid tolerably large and runs N.E. we then made 3 miles S. by E. and camped the snow here covers the ground and the horses have to dig for their food. Saw today 12 deer and a great quantity of Elk and Deer sign and one bear track after camping went out to hunt but could kill nothing today the first clear day for four days the fog lifted a little and enabled us to see a range of snowy mts on the west side of us and one very high bearing S. W. distant about 25 miles should we have any considerable fall of snow now we should loose all our horses they could not subsist with much more than there is now all the dog meat which we have brot with us from the last Inds. is done and we have now to look to our guns to supply us or eat our horses. We have about 4 bushells of rice and flour in camp for cases of extremity and a little dog grease. Small game there is none we have but 10 lbs of powder along and that damaged Go ahead very cold for the 4 last days.

14th. Made S.E. 4 miles to a very small creek running in an immense chasm into which we got and camped the grass being good and our horses having had nothing last night except what they dug up from beneath several inches of snow saw many deer today but killed none sent our hunters out after camping all but one returned empty and him I suppose has lost himself in the forests as I heard a gun late at night and returned several shots weather still quite foggy and very cold.

15th. S.E. by E. 4 miles and down the ravine the snow growing less and less visibly in this direction got out of the woods and saw the country bare of snow here found a lodge of Indians who have 32 Horses traded one of them and have the promise of trading two more in the morning the man missing last nigh came thi[s] mng.

16th. Traded the two horses one of which cost 82 1/2 cents of beads first cost. Made E. down the ravine 2 mils then struck a good trail crossing the ravine and going off S.S.W. which I followed over rocky high land 8 mils and came to a very large creek I should think it must be at least one-half of the River Des Shutes at least running in an immense chasm into which we decended and camped in good grass and plenty of dry wood which makes us very comfortable for the night is very cold during the march over the high land saw a chain of mts on our left and the other side of the river white with snow and partly wooded.

17th. Went up the creek W.S.W. 2 miles when it turned south and we forded it at a deep ford horses suffered much from the coldness of the water then wound S.W. up the opposite bank of the river very high and precipitous 2 miles more here saw many deer killed none after attaining the heigh[t] made 8 miles S.S.W. through timber and snow then S.S.E. 4 miles also through timber saw several places where deer had been killed by the wolves which are here numerous and very large camped at a little grass the first seen today where the horses can dig up a little food. The country ahead appears more open we have now a little rice to eat and no meat begin to look at the horses still cold.

18th. Made S.S.E. 12 miles to a small creek during this days march a snowy range of high mts. in points lay along our right and front stretching so that our course today just doubles their eastwardly termination at a place where probably a fork of the river Des Shutes passes this range runs N.E. & S.W. still farther on our left and apparently on the other side of the same river there is another range running N. by S. today saw a very great amt. of sign and deer and have concluded to stop and hunt tomorrow and rest the horses tonight a little snow squall.

19th. Same camp Went out hunting killed 2 deer and several wolves this day came to us 5 Walla Walla Inds. who are out hunting they camp with us tonight they say that the game comes down from the mts. in the winter on account of the snows which is the occasion of its being so plenty at this time one man out of camp tonight probably lost shall wait tomorrow for him if he does not come in the meantime and take another hunt for meat which is now quite a luxury.

20th. Same camp killed one deer found the lost man

21st. Made S.S.E. 15 miles toward the eastwardly termination of the range of mts which has for some time been visible on our right at this point we can see no mts. but a little farther on the left they commence again apparently the same range which we have seen for some time ranging on the E. side of the river. Killed no game today but saw plenty.

22nd. S.E. by E. 10 miles and struck a small creek which though very rapid was so hard frozen over that we crossed it on the ice then N.E. 1 1/2 mils and came to a very large creek which I take to be the main river it is about as large as the other fork which we crossed on the 17th inst. country a little more broken deer plenty but killed none today a little warmer than usual.

23rd. Started up the river E.S.E. and gradually in 4 mils travel rounded to a S.S.W. course and made 12 more the last 6 of which the snow increased in such a manner that tonight we find no grass for our Horses and being afraid to advance with them another days march I have determined to send them back and with 3 men I propose to build canoes and assend as far as I can and ascertain if it is possible to get the horses through and if so to send back for them and if not to ascertain if there is beaver and if so trap it if not further advance this quarter is useless. Tonight set in to snow hard but soon turned to rain.

24th. Snowed and rained all last [night] and still snowing with a gale of wind from S.S.W. nearly all the horses gone astray about 12 having found all but one killed a poor Horse for food and send the party all but three back to find grass for the horses cut down two large pines and commenced two canoes gale all day with occasional snow and rain.

25th. Same camp gale S.S.W. Snow and rain all day a miserable Christmas worked what little we could on the canoes.

26th Day fair and calm warm go ahead making canoes

27th. Day fair calm and warm still at the canoes

28th. day fair calm and warm still at the canoes and eating horse meat

29th Fair weather and mild.

30th Fair weather and mild. Sick with indigestion

31st. Fair weather and mild all so far South wind myself better and finished the canoes and horse meat at the same time viz; this evening at supper the men have called our two boats Black Snake & Triton.

1835 Jany 1st. Started in the morning in the canoes about 5 miles by the river about 2 1/2 miles due south and came to a rapid in attempting to assend which got filled with water and afterward in towing with the line she broke loose and went down stream we recovered her after a long run and assended again to the rapid and it being near night camped killed today one fine fat goose warm south wind rain snow deeper as we proceed and is now about 2 feet country rough and covered with pines set 4 traps for beaver today and am in hopes to have one for breakfast.

2nd. Went to my traps found nothing then made snow shoes and set out with one man to explore the river took a due south course and in 3 or 4 miles came unexpectedly to the river there running smooth. I was happy to see it as I was entirely tired of this mode of travelling my shoes were too small and I frequently sunk into the snow and bothered me much to get out again sometimes I would tread on my shoes and fall down and on the whole I though[t] I could get along better without them returned to camp killed three ducks for four of us small allowance with our men took our boat up to the rapids and spent the residue of the day in getting our canoe past the rapid most of the time up to my middle in this cold water had to make a portage at last of about 1/4 of a mile the river here makes a detour to the E. and around S. to west to the place where we take our things across.

3rd. Raised our traps and found one beaver caught the largest I ever saw I think he weighed 65 lbs. and killed one duck a very seasonable supply of food the residue of the day finished making the portage and sett 8 traps the other Boat also got setting above Snow today and rained hard last night nearly all night. Wind Strong N.W. the first wind beside S. since 10 days.

4th. Found but one beaver in our traps took a jaunt up the river at about 6 miles straight line S. the river forks into two apparently equal streams followed the left one about 2 mils S. by E. and returned to camp tired enough having found only sign enough in this distance to set 3 traps the river winds so that we have to paddle twice the real distance rained and snowed some during the day. Saw for the first time on this route swans they appear plenty here country still timbered but much more level.

5th. Caught 3 Beaver rained and snowed hard all last night and part of today raised camp and camped about 2 miles below the forks mentioned yesterday one of the beaver caught today would weigh I should think 70 lbs. and our fires look finely with sundry roasting sticks around full of meat the beaver are fat and we live finely again. Wind strong and south.

6th Rained all the forenoon and hail and snow all the afternoon caught no beaver saw very little sign heard a rapid or fall ahead killed 2 swans so fat that we could not eat all the grease a rear thing in this country to be troubled with fat Seems good to live well after poor horse meat and short supply Shall lay down the course tomorrow when I get it more accurately today being too thick to see and the river more winding than ever timber less plenty and very small and but little of the large kind of pine country as far as we can see very level with here and there a round conical mountain.

7th Started up the river to sett traps found sign for but one and returned to camp at the same place as last night killed one swan which would weigh I should think 35 Ibs. to fat to eat one we eat yesterday yielded nearly 2 qts. of oil more than we could eat with it. These birds are delicious it is strange that one only does two of us two meals that is to say a day. They dont eat so in the states day pretty cold wind S.W. strong little snow today and some sun out the bed of the river is a soft white stone or hard clay the same as found on the Clacamas I think it is of the chalk formation.

8th Remained all day at same camp on account of a severe snow storm it snowed all day and fell about one foot Blew strong from the South which is almost constant wind here.

9th went down the river and raised some traps we had set there and returned to same camp The river from the last place [to] where I brought it runs S.E. 1 mile at which point a fork coming from the Eastward but it was frozen up so we could not assend it then south 5 miles to this camp.

10th. Snowed and rained all last night hard and today so we are blessed with about 8 inches of slush makes every thing very uncomfortable did not move camp.

11th. Last night grew cold and set in for a hard snow storm with a gale of wind from the W.S.W. which continued without intermission until sunset today so we did not move camp the cracking of the falling trees and the howling of the blast was more grand than comfortable it makes two individuals feel their insignificance in the creation to be seated under a blankett with a fire in front and 3 1/2 feet of snow about them and more coming and no telling when it will stop. tonight tis calm and nearly full moon it seems to shine with as much indifference as the storms blow and wether for weal or woe, we two poor wretches seem to be little considered in the matter. The thoughts that have run through my brain while I have been lying here in the snow would fill a volume and of such matter as was never put into one, my infancy, my youth, and its friends and faults, my manhoods troubled stream, its vagaries, its aloes mixed with the gall of bitterness and its results viz under a blankett hundreds perhaps thousands of miles from a friend, the Blast howling about, and smothered in snow, poor, in debt, doing nothing to get out of it, despised for a visionary, nearly naked, but there is one good thing plenty to eat health and heart.

12th. Started up stream and made S. 6 miles at which point there is a considerable creek coming in from W.S.W. water as warm as the main river and not frozen up. Then 3 miles S.S.E. and camped. Saw but little beaver sign today river not very rapid but winding saw only two swans could not kill them caught one yearling beaver spit snow all day at night set in to snow hard moderately cold wind S. but moderate.

13th. 6 miles W. by N. creek very winding and more rapid than usual and camped just below a severe rapid fine sun in the forenoon but cloudy and snow spits in the afternoon and this evening.

14th. Snowed about 4 inches last night. Today pretty cold passed the rapid on the south side of the south channel there being a small island at this place just above the island there is a raft of drift timber which extends across the whole river this we made a portage of for about 6 rods at the rapid I hauled the canoe wading in the water about waist deep and remaining in it about 3 hours and got quite numb but at last got through with it we then assended the river 3 miles more in good water but very winding S.W. to make which I think we paddled 8 miles to another rapid not severe finding that it would take some time and being obliged to return to camp soon concluded not to pass this rapid and returned to the first rapid and set 6 traps day windy from S.W. and some snow and sunshine.

15th. Last night excessively cold the cracking of the trees kept me awake part of the night and night before I was kept up most of the night by a fever arising from indigestion today cold calm and clear as the sun got high it was extremely pleasant and this is the only day I have seen that would pass for a pleasant one in a good climate this winter went to the traps found nothing decended the rapid after another cold job in the water and returned to our camp of the 13th inst on the way down saw 5 swan the first since the 12th but killed nothing but 3 ducks We are getting short of provisions again at evening very cold again.

16th Started down the stream and made the portage of the falls about one hour after sunset last night the ther. must have been 10 below zero and the river scum over with drift ice which made us make haste for if we should get frozen up here it would be hard times for food the water fowl and beaver would be done and other game there is absolutely none and to travel would be almost impossible there is four feet of snow however we could try snow shoes Killed 4 ducks and one swan today the latter would weigh at least 45 lbs. a very seasonable supply as all our food gave out this moming. Day calm sunny not very cold tonight strong south wind and rain.

17th. Moved camp down stream about a mile and found our other boat with Mr. Richardson & Rob[in]son the latter during the severe cold had frozen his toes and fingers and the former was unwell with a numbness in his hips they reported to me that the beaver on this creek had made them sick probably this was what was the matter with me there is plenty of wild parsnip here they raised camp with us and we stopped the canoes where we built them and made a portage of 1/4 of a mile this severe work in deep snow we then decended about 3 miles and came to rapids part of which we let our boats over by the line in about 1/2 mile more came to worse rapids and made a portage of about 1/3 mile then immediately let the boats down further rapids about 100 rods to do which I had to remain in the water the whole time it was after dark when I got through the other boat got nearly through and gave it up and I suppose have camped without fire or food. The river falls at each of these carrying places at least 50 feet Rained most all day.

18th. Went up above the last rapid to see the other boat found them comfortably camped they made a portage of their things and I attempted to run their boat empty just as I took the Shute the bow struck a rock I did not see she swung round filled at once and commenced whirling over like a top I hung to her and passed without further damage than mashing both of my feet severely between the boat and a rock was in much pain all this day but not very lame we run by the river about two miles and passed some bad rapids then made a portage of about a 1/4 mile into a slew of the river which we followed about 1/4 mile further then were forced to make a bad portage up a steep bank of lava about 100 feet this portage about 1/4 mile we then ran about two miles further and camped snow here not so deep as above and apparently diminishing fast men much tired and discouraged and wish to abandon the canoes which I do not mean to do until I am obliged to cashed at the first portage today 22 traps good weather today.

19th. Started down stream and ran a continuous rapid for about 2 miles we let our boats down about l/4 mile then crossed the river and let the boats down a few rods and finding the river was pretty much all rapids and falls concluded to abandon the boats cashed all but our blankets books amunition axe and kettles and took it on foot with about 60 lbs each on our backs and 1 foot of hard snow into which we sank sometimes and sometimes not it however diminished as we proceeded we made about 6 miles and saw plenty of deer and camped killed one which was just in time as a little piece of swan was all the meat left in camp. I am very tired hungry but the deer will cure all this there is little snow at this place our camp I think can not be far off on the other side of the river I can see a grassy plain of about 30 miles long and about 5 wide bare of snow snowed a little this morning day fine tonight freezing a little.

20th. Started late sore footed but with a full belly and an addition of about 20 lbs of meat each we made about 6 miles and passed our camp of the 22nd and 23rd ult. about 1 mile further we crossed a small fork the one we before crossed on the ice then S. 2 miles and camped and tried hard for a deer but could not get one altho we saw a great many day fine this evening cool grass not much covered with snow see no sign of camp yet.

21st. Made 2 miles N. to the river and camped took a turn down the river about 5 miles to look for some sign of our camp found a little Indian sign of about the same age but nothing of our people. Afternoon went out to a high hill to the W. and made a large pile of brush and after dark set fire to it in order that if our people are near that they may see it and come to us sent a man over the river to look but he could not cross but he saw one of their camps shall go tomorrow and ascertain if it so killed nothing today so we shall have no breakfast in the morning day fine tolerable cool 1 inch of snow last night which went off today.

22nd Snowed part of last night and rained the residue and the forenoon of today snow the rest and part of the night in morning our hunter went out and wounded a deer which the wolves ran down but before he could find him they had eaten up all but enough for 2 meals this morning breakfasted on two beaver tails which I had laid by and forgotten so we have not yet on this trip lost a meal as yet myself in the morning made a raft and endeavored to cross the river but found I had selected a bad place and could not do it went above found a better place made another raft and succeeded found one of our camps so we now have some clew to camp and shall push for it after getting a small supply of meat beforehand wind strong southwardly camped this night in a cave of the rocks one mile W. of last nights camp.

23rd. Moved down to camp of 22nd inst and went out to hunt killed nothing myself but Mr Richardson killed a fawn so we have 2 meals ahead besides two nights supper Mr R. is sick of a bad cold in his chest and some biles on his neck and cannot carry his pack Rained steady all day.

24th. Made 12 miles N. by W. and using what looked like a fine ford I tried to wade the river but at first failed went a little lower and succeeded and got back safe but benumbed with cold and after warming myself at a fire which the rest had built took my things across and built a roaring fire to warm the others as they came over here found some beaver cuttings saw but little deer or sign today cold wind W. cloudy snow nearly gone.

25th. Made 10 miles N. and seeing a little deer sign stopped and our hunter went out during the march we heard a gun on the west side of the river we fired guns and were answered toward night a little Snake Indian came to us and induced us to go to their camp which was among the cedars about 5 miles N.E. we found them without meat but we bought of them a lean dog of which we made supper and enough left for breakfast so tis rub and go. there were three lodges they had no guns but had killed much deer as proved by the number of skins they had last night and this forenoon snowed about 5 inches today rained and melted most of it no water except snow and that dirty at this camp.

26th. Under the guidance of a Snake Indian we struck N.W. to the river 7 miles and forded it at a rapid and waist deep ford then W. by N. 4 miles and came to 8 lodges of Snakes here our guide I suppose heard that our camp had moved and backed out of his job by running away we then struck N.W. 8 miles and came to the small river on which we [camped] the 18th l9th and 20th ulto here we saw one Indian who ran from us who appeared to be a Snake. while we were debating which course to pursue we espied 4 Indians on the opposite side of the creek these we spoke and they Informed us where our camp was and one of them took my pack to it they had killed several deer but we thought to get to camp and did not take any we made from the creek N.N.W. up a very steep high hill 5 miles and coming very dark we camped for the first time this trip without supper and me without blanketts and tired enough.

27th. Got up and having no breakfast to cook or eat started the earlier and moved N.N.W. 2 miles and the rest refused to go further preferring to wait until some chance Indian should come along hunting to take them the right way to camp I having no pack started in quest of it and passing the N.N.W. course in 1 1/2 mile found it on a little thread of water running N. and deep snow during the time we had been gone they had Bled 20 deer and had not starved the Walla Walla Indians are here hunting. They go out on their horses and run them and as the deer get tired the Inds. get good shots at them but the number wounded is much greater than that killed on these the wolves feast at night and keep up a continual howl after these last comes the ravens for their share I found missing from yesterday 6 horses among which was my two fine riding horses and three others which have been stolen by the Snakes who are up to this kind of dealing today sent men to look for the 6 and they brot but one day fine for any country and warm tonight freezing cold.

28th. Sent out two men again for the 5 missing horses and after finding the residue which not until noon started N. by W. and after 12 miles struck the old trail on which I came up about 6 miles from our camp of 16 & 17 day very fine nothing to eat tonight but a little flour camped on a little stream made by the thawing of the snow.

29th Rose early and without any breakfast started down the valley on which we camped last night which joins a large fork of the Des Shutes in about 3 miles from this and leaving the old trail on which I came up to the left made N.N.E. 2 miles then leaving the valley to the left made 1 1/2 miles N.E. then going down a very steep and high cut rock bank E. 1 mile crossed the large fork of the Des Shutes about 2 miles below my camp of the 16th and 17th ulto. this ford is deeper and more rapid than the one I made before possibly the stream is higher on account of the thawing of the snow We are camped with about 12 lodges of Walla Wallas they have at this moment a good supply of meat deer which they are drying I presume they have not often so much on hand as they seem to value it highly on my arrival I made the chief a good present to induce him to influence his people to trade but as yet have traded of root and meat but about 3 days supply I intend waiting here three nights in order that they make another hunt and then perhaps I may get a sufficient supply to take me down. Tomorrow is Sunday and there will be neither trading nor hunting in this camp this is my birthday but I have forgotten how old I am

30th This unless my reconing is wrong is Sunday at day dawn the chief called the Inds. to prayers which consist of a short recitation followed by a tune in which all join without words after which a note in accord to wind off this is repeated several times on Sunday and is a dayly practice at daylight to day the two men sent for the horses came in and brought 4 2 of which were my riding horses this day warm as June in N.E. and no snow in this valley.

31st The Inds. commence their meal with religious ceremonys and then come and beg a smoke the day is also closed with religious ceremonies traded about 2 days provisions of the Indians day fine as summer and the grass begins to start a little

Feb. 1st Started [from] camp early and made 8 miles N. by E. over a trail which we followed the latter part of the 16 ulto. I then laid the course S.S.W. to make our camp of the 16 & 17 which was about 1 mile above our last nights camp traded today about 2 days provisions looked at the rocks a little and as the country has been the same as far as I have been a description of the bluffs here will answer for the whole. There are some cut blufs of Basalt in its original position but they are chiefly a very coarse sand stone of an ash color in layers some of which are finer and some coarser it is soft and is composed of rubble stone of lava and primitive rocks it sometimes contains organic remains bones I have taken out of it in a fosil state a small piece of which I have preserved Today cloudy and on the high land over which we came today it was quite chilly but in the valley of the Small creek on which we are camped it is warm latter part of the day sunny.

2nd Moved camp N. by E. 8 miles over a plain and pretty good trail leaving entirely the route which I followed coming up the Indians killed some deer grass appears better day cloudy or foggy until about noon when the sun came out like April in N.E.

3rd This day the Indians concluded not to move camp I therefore requested the chief to call on his people to come and trade meat they traded about 6 days provisions and I left them following the trail N. by E. 8 miles to a creek which we crossed in our march of the 12th u[l]to. the Banks of this creek is of fine deep red clay and at this camp there is a hot spring too hot to bear the hand in long and smoking like a coal pit it tastes of sulphur and iron and deposits a whitish substance on the pebbles as it dries away we hear for the first time this season the croaking of the frogs trail good, grass good, day cloudy and chill. Ther in spring 191 deg.

4th. Early in mng. took my thermometer to ascertain the heat of the spring found it to be 134 deg and took a good bath by going a little distance down the stream to find a suitable temperature and this first time for a long while feel myself pretty clean. rose camp and crossed the little stream on which we camped and leaving the Indian trail struck N.N.E. and in 6 miles came to the main river Des Shutes along which we found a small trail we made 4 miles N. and camped during this distance the river could be run by a good boatman but it is almost a continued rapid the rocks of this march appear to be all shades between green and red similar to the earth it appears by being porous to be volcanic the first course of the march very miry the last firm and pretty good, grass improving, day cloudy in morning sunny this afternoon. Saw much Big Horn and deer sign by the way.

5th. Made along the river 1 mile N. then west 2 miles up a mountain then N. 1 mile and down a ravine then E.N.E. 2 miles to the main river again and down a ravine then 7 miles N. by E. along the main river and camped trail plain all the way but very hilly and stony grass good, day at first cloudy and on the mountain much hoar frost in afternoon sunny the upper part of the mountain was of mica slate very much twisted this afternoon the rock was volcanic and in some places underlaid with green clay Saw today small bolders of a blackrock which from its fracture I took to be bituminous coal but its weight was about that of hornblende perhaps it might be Obsidian but I think was heavier than any I have ever seen river all this days march might be run if there is no bad place where I cut the mountain saw Big Horn trails but not the game.

6th Made along the river 4 miles N. by W. during which space saw nothing that might not be passed by a good boatman then mounted the W. bank of the river and came to a large cedar plain 3 miles N. by W. then N. by E. over the plain 6 miles more to tinkers camp in crossing at this camp wet my cases with all my papers by a horse falling in the river while fording day cloudy with a little snow found this branch some higher than when I passed up here we found and raised a small cash which I made on my way up and during the march sent two men to raise another which I made at the next camp above from these Indians I hear that [of] my runaway Kanackas 10 took the trail over the Blue one was drowned in crossing some ford one froze in the upper country that the residue rafted the Snake river one more died somehow about the falls that 7 are gone down to Vancouver tonight traded 8 dogs for their fat to kill the lice on my horses.

7th Early in the day the two men sent to raise the cash came in with its contents undamaged exchanged at this camp a poor little lame, mare for a tolerable horse in pretty good order traded for a knife each 6 dogs today used the grease of these dogs to kill the lice on my horses that are nearly covered with them day cloudy but not cold in the valley Mount Hood bears 1/2 point N. of N.W. sick myself of a bowell complaint cashed at this camp l l/3 bales corn and 7 setts shoes and nails.

8th N.N.W. 16 miles in the first place 2 miles to the top of an elevated range of woodless hills which skirt the west side of the creek on which we camped then down the slope of these hills 4 miles more during this space much snow then struck into a little creek which we followed 6 miles then the left bank of this creek to another and larger fork of the same 4 miles and camped in good grass This creek comes from the S.W. and is now as large as the small creek on which I camped the first night after leaving the mouth of the river Des Shutes on my way up there are several Indians with me who say that once there was much beaver on this creek but that the British Cos have trapped it out day cloudy a few drops of rain.

9th Moved camp early on a plain and good trail N.N.W. 10 miles to the Dalls after following on this trail 3 miles we came to a small creek coming from the W.S.W. and joining the one on which we camped last night and at 5 miles more another which either joins the same very near the Columbia or goes into the Columbia found Soaptilly [Tilki?] and a few more Chinooks at the river of whom I traded one horse and a canoe they report 7 Canackas gone down and that one was drowned at the falls and one froze in the mountains leaving one unaccounted for rained a little today.

10th Started early in a very leaky canoe which kept us bailing all the time and made 8 miles N.W. 5 W. and 3. S.W. 1 west and on account of high wind camped about noon a little rain as usual.

11th. At about sunsett last night the wind lulled a little and we made a start but the wind continued high and about 2 ock we arrived at the Cascades a little above which we camped this morning went to the Cascades and there found Mr Ermatinger with a brigade of 3 boats taking up the outfits for the upper forts also Capt. Stewart Mr Ray [William G. Rae] and one more gentleman made the portage and in 12 hours made the saw mill.

12th. In the morning made to Vancouver and found there a polite reception and to my great astonishment Mr Hall J. Kell[e]y he came in Co. with Mr [Ewing] Young from Monte El Rey [Monterey] and it is said stole between them a bunch of Horses Kelly is not received at the Fort on this account as a gentleman a house is given him and food sent him from the Gov. Table but he is not suffered to mess here I also found 7 of my runaway Kanackas they appear to be very sick of their job so I have concluded not to be severe with them I hear also that Fort Hall has traded 300 skins up to what time do not know or how true also that Tom Bule & Harry two more of the runaways are with some of McKays men on Snake River they will probably fall in at Fort Hall

13th Went down to the station at Carneaus and found all well and doing pretty well. This is Sunday and I have lost 3 days somewhere. During the residue of this month sent Mr. Richardson to the Dalles with supplies for the party which I left above trapping he had tempestuous weather and was gone 13 days myself took a trip up the Wallamut to look after the farm and my taylor who had deserted me during the winter after Richardson had gone I took a small canoe and proceeded up the Columbia and in my progress got filled with the violence of the wind and quantity of rain I arrived at Vancouver in the mornig 23rd Feb. and met a reception such as one loves to find in such a country as this

24th Started down the Columbia to the mouth of the Wallamut up which about 4 miles to the head of Wappatoo Islands here finding the canoe too deep to proceed against the rapid current of this river now very high we put down the west slew and crossed over the first bank of the river into the waters back and went to the Farm of Mr Thomas McKay and procured horses and went by land this took us all of the 25 & 26 both of which days it rained hard all the little streams made us swim our horses and some of the open prairies were swimming and much of them wading at night of the 26th arrived at Sandy camp just above which I had begun a farm.

27th Went to the farm and found the Taylor and Sloat [Stout?] the foreman gone down to see me they having heard of my return during the day went up to Mr Lees place in order to get Babtiste to school with him in which I succeeded

28th returned to Camp Sandy rain today

29th. [Mar 1] Started for McKay Farm during a hard rain and snow

30th. [Mar 2] Arrived at McKays farm

31st. [Mar 3] Back to station at Carneaus place and here found my runaway Taylor [Thornberg.]

Mar 1 [Mar 4] From this time until the 8th employed him in getting out coopers stuff and timber for a house boat which I intend to build.

Apl 13th Sunday I suppose employed in getting out stuff for the house boat in cutting 8000 hoop poles and in building a canoe 60 feet long wide and deep enough to chamber barrells of which she will take 25 she is clean of knotts shakes and almost of sap and 27 feet cut off the same tree of the same kind of stuff the whole tree was 242 feet long and this by no means the largest tree on Wappatoo Island this is of the Spruce kind today I am on my way down to Fort William where the Brig lay to regulate matters there I have just parted from Mr McLaughlin Esq. on his way to view the Fallatten [Tualatin] plains I suppose with some idea of making him a farm there some day I have now out of 21 people 7 sick and little work can be done after deducting from the remaining 14 a provision boat to trade food and enough to take care of the sick up to the first of this month it rained continually and about 1/4 of the time since I find the plows which I brought from the States of no use in the new lands here no news as yet from Bg. [Brig] or Capt Thing So far with much exertion we provided ourselves with food but the whites in this country are exhausted of all kinds.